Glossary of Stamp Collecting Terms

R

R: 1: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue 2: abbreviation for Reprint 3: Registration, Registered, Recommandé (Sp.) 4: precedes the European postal code on addresses in Romania, such as R-70119, Bucharest. 5: registro (Sp.) registered 6: Rand; currency unit in Republic of South Africa, Namibia. 7: Real, currency unit in Brazil 8: Riel, currency unit in Cambodia, Iran. 9: (With value) Reunion overprint on stamps of France, French Colonies. 10: India inscription on stamps of J(h)ind, India, 1874-85. 11: Ecuador, overprint by SCADTA, 1928-20. 12: inscription / overprint Colombia registration. 13: overprint on stamps of Northern Rhodesia changing a postage stamp to a revenue issue. 14: overprint/surcharge on stamps of Panama for registration fee.
R., R.R., R.R.R.: degrees of rarity, in ascending order.
R, r: Riyal: currency unit in Qatar, Saudi Arabia.
R, r: Rupee, currency unit in India, Mauritius, Nepal, Pakistan, Seychelles, Sri Lanka.
R, r: Ruble, currency unit in Belarus, Russia.
R, Ri: Rial, currency unit in Sultanate of Oman, Yemen.
R, Ri: Ringgit, currency unit in Malaysia.
R, Ru: Ruble, currency unit in Belarus, Russia, Tajikistan, Transdniestra.
R, Ru: Rufiya, currency unit in Republic of Maldives.
R & S: Reiche and Sendbuehler Nos. (Canadian small Queen issue re-entries).
RA: Scott Catalog number prefix for Postal Tax.
Raab's Express Co.: label, local express, Hoboken, NJ and Barclay, NY.
R.A.A.F.: Royal Australian Air Force.
RAB: Scott Catalog number prefix for Postal Tax Semi-postal (Brazil, Greece).
Rab: formerly Arbe, island part of Fiume; 1920, Nov.: stamps issued for Arbe, now Rab, 1920, Dec. 24: stamps withdrawn..
Rabattmarke: (Ger.) discount savings stamp.
Rabaul: capital of New Britain in Bismarck Archipelago; formerly part of German New Guinea; 1914: British forces took over from Germany, stamps overprinted "G.R.I." on German New Guinea registration labels.
Rabaul-G.R.I.: "Georgius Rex Imperator" New Britain overprint.
RAC: Scott Catalog number prefix for Air Mail Postal Tax (Dominican Republic, Haiti).
Rac.: (It.) raccomandata (registered), pre-adhesive postmark.
Racapito Autorizzato: (It.) Italy, authorized delivery stamp.
Raccogliere: (It.) collect; to assemble or bring together.
RADA: displaced person camp, Ukrainian National Council, 1948-49.
Rada Miejska Miasta Przedborza: (Pol.) Town Council of Przedborz; city in Poland, local post, 1917-18.
Radetsky, S.S.: steamship marking of the Danube Steam Navigation Company built around 1840s, for lower Danube lines.
Radio Tax Stamp: a license fee for the ownership and use of a radio; started 1920s in many countries.
Rádkové Zoubkování: (Czech.) line perforation.
Rakousko: (Czech.) Austria.
Rakousky: (Czech.) Austrian.
Rakousko-Uhersko: (Czech.) Austria-Hungary.
Radway & Co.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp.
RAF: Royal Air Force, Great Britain.
Rag content paper: cotton fiber usage rather than wood pulp in the manufacture fo envelopes; high rag content envelopes stand up better over a period of time than wood fiber covers, which may contain processing chemicals that eventually discolor the paper.
Rafiyaa: currency unit in Maldive Islands, 1951.
Ragasztönyommal: (Hung.) mint, hinged, see használatlan falcos.
Rahmen: (Ger.) frame, a border.
Rahmanieh: city in Egypt; see Interpostal Seals, 1880.
Rahmenstempel: (Ger.) framed or boxed marking.
Railroad: handstamp on Mohawk & Hudson Railroad, Albany, N.Y., 1837.
Railroad cancel: postal cancellation applied in a railway post office aboard a train.
Rail Road Car: handstamp on baggage or mail car of an independent railroad indicated mailing status and fee paid.
Railway Air Services: airmail operations by and behalf of railway firms; in 1934, the four major British rail firms formed the Railway Mail Service and ran an airmail network throughout the country.
Railway cancels: used on traveling post offices (T.P.O.), marking may be "Poste Ambulante" in France and Belgium; terminal points are used in Germany and Egypt; sometimes with the train number.
Railway company stamps: local or semi-official stamps issued by railway firms to denote fees payable for mail carried.
Railway Letter Fee Stamp: a special stamp was available between 1891 and 1922 for railway firms in Great Britain and Ireland for letters handed in at stations to be collected on arrival or put into regular postal delivery at the station nearest the addressee; replaced by Railway Parcel Stamps.
Railway Mail Service: division of the Post Office Department that includes Railway Post Offices, Terminal Railway Post Offices, Transfer Offices and Pouch Services.
Railway Parcel Stamps: stamps issued by the railroad firms to prepay the freight charges on packages, first issued in 1846.
Railway Post Office (RPO): portable mail-handling equipment for sorting mail while on transit on trains.
Railroad: Eisenbahn (Ger.) ; Chemin d'Fer (Fr.) ; Ferrovia (It.) ; Ferrocarril (Sp.).
Railroad marking: postmark applied by postal employees to mail carried on railroad cars.
Railroad post routes: the Act of July 7, 1838, section 2, states, "Each and every railroad within the limits of the U. S. which now is, or hereafter may be completed, shall be a post route."
Railway: railroad.
Railway Letter: local, Montreal, Canada, 1971.
Railway postmark: Bahnpoststempel (Ger.) ; Oblitération de Chemin d'Fer (Fr.) ; Bollo di Ferrovia (It.) ; Matasellos de Ferrocarril (Sp.) Railway post office (RPO): post office in a mail car on board a railroad, many often have a route marking.
Railway stamp: stamps issued to carry parcels or mail on the trains of various railway firms, since it is considered an express service, the stamps are usually used in addition to the normal postage stamps. 1: Belgium railway parcel post issues, started 1879. 2: British express stamp, used in addition to postage stamps.
Railway terminal cancellation: end terminals on rail routes.
Rainbow Creek: bogus issue, located in Victoria's Gippsland, 1979.
Rainbow proofs, trials: British color trials to test various colored inks, cancellations and paper; 1840-41.
Raised S: refers to the letter "S" in the word postage being slightly higher and tilted on U.S. Scott U525, postal stationery cut square.
RAJ: Scott Catalog number prefix for Postal Tax Due.
Rajasthan: union of 14 Rajputanan Indian states; 1948: first local stamps, overprint of internal issues, 1950, Apr. 1: stamps discontinued, now uses stamps of Republic of India, also India overprint on stamps of Jaipur, Kishangarh.
Rajnandgaon: India Nandgaon Feudatory State.
Rajpeepla (Rajpipla): India Feudatory State; 1880: first local stamps, 1886: stamps discontinued, uses stamps of Republic of India.
Raj. Service: former Indian native state with own stamp issue, 1880-86.
Rakete: (Ger.) rocket.
Raketenflugpost: (Ger.) flown rocket mail.
Raketpost: (Dan., Nor.) rocket mail.
Rakettpost: (Nor.) rocket mail.
Räknat: (Swed.) counted.
Raleigh, N.C. paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters' Provisionals.
Raleigh Stamp post Sv.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
Ram: (Swed.) frame.
Rámkove Zoubkování: (Czech.) harrow perforation.
Ramleh: city in Egypt; see Interpostal Seals, 1865-80.
Ramleh Staz-Bacos: city in Egypt; see Interpostal Seals, 1882.
Ramleh Staz-Bulkey: city in Egypt; see Interpostal Seals, 1880-82.
Ramleh Staz-Fleming: city in Egypt; see Interpostal Seals, 1880.
Ramleh Staz-Schutz: city in Egypt; see Interpostal Seals, 1880-82.
Ramme: (Den., Nor.) frame.
Rammehřyde: (Nor.) height of frame.
Rammelinie: (Dan.) frame line.
Ramses: city in Egypt; see Interpostal Seals, 1872-79.
Rand: 1: (Dan., Ger.) margin. 2: currency unit in South Africa, South-West Africa, (Namibia), Basutoland (Lesotho), Bechuanaland (Botswana), Swaziland, and Tristan da Cunha.
Randall Postal Service: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
Randall's Express: local parcel serviced Boston and Rockland, Mass.
Randello: (It.) association, club.
Randers: 1. local bypost, Denmark, 1885-89. 2. Seaport city in Århus county, E Jutland Peninsula, Denmark, on the Gudenå River where it enters Randers Fjord ca. 15 miles from the Kattegut arm of the North Sea, and ca. 140 mile NW of Copenhagen. Local post established May 1885, with first “Randers Bypost og Pakke-Expedition” lithographed local stamps issued on the same day, and with numerous others issued through 1889. The local post was absorbed by the Danish Post Office in December 1889.
Randers Hadsund Jernbane: local, Denmark railway post.
Randgebiet: (Ger.) sideline collecting, anything collectible.
R.& R.S. Special Post: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
Rang I: Level One, national level German stamp exhibitions. The exhibitions are given the rankings, while the exhibitors have to work their way up through those ratings with their exhibits.
Rang II: Level Two, regional level German stamp exhibitions.
Rang III: Level Three, local level German stamp exhibitions.
Rangée: (Fr.) row of stamps.
Ransom, D. & Co.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp.
Ransom, D. Son & Co.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp.
Ransoneringsförsändelse: (Swed.) cover regarding rationing of goods, WW II.
Rapa-Nui: Chile overprints for Easter Island, bogus.
Rapid Delivery Co.: 1888?, local parcel serviced the Milwaukee, Wisc. area.
Rapid Delivery Co. Limited: local parcel serviced the New Orleans, La., area.
Rapido: (Sp.) daytime express trains, found on "ambulante" postmarks.
Rapid Package Delivery: local parcel service operated in the Los Angeles, Calif. area.
Rappen: currency unit in Liechtenstein and Switzerland.
RAPT: Rhodesia Association for the Prevention of Tuberculosis.
Rareté: (Fr.) rarity.
Rareza: (Sp.) rarity.
Rarisimo: (Sp.) extremely rare.
Rarissime: (Fr.) extremely rare.
Rarità, Raro: (It.) rarity.
Rarität: (Ger.) rare, rarity.
Rarity: term used in judging an exhibit to determine relative scarcity of an item.
Raro: (Sp.) rare, scarce.
Rarotonga: 15 islands on stamps of New Zealand from Cook Islands; currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1967) 1903: - 1932, 1972: separate stamp issues for Aitutaki, Penrhyn Islands, 1919-pre: stamps inscribed “Cook Islands Federation” and “Cook Islands,” 1919: No.1, ½ pence yellow green, Rarotonga overprint on stamps of New Zealand, 1920: inscribed Rarotonga, but used throughout Cook Islands group, 1932: used stamps inscribed Cook Islands; see Cook Islands.
Ras al Khaima: Oman Peninsula, one of the United Arab Emirates; currency: 100 naye paise = 1 rupee 1964, Dec. 21: No.1, 5 naye paise brown and black, first stamps, 1965: first stamp, 1972, Feb. 10: joined the United Arab Emirates; see Trucial States, United Arab Emirates.
Raseiniu: Lithuania local issue.
Ras-el-Khalig: city in Egypt; see Interpostal Seals, 1880-84.
Rasgadura: (Sp.) a tear (in a postage stamp or cover).
Rassemblez: (Fr.) collect; to assemble or bring together.
Rasterdjuptryck: (Swed.) half-tone recess printing.
Rastertiedruck: (Ger.) offset printing method, photogravure.
Rate: the amount of money charged for a postal service.
Rate change cover: cover posted on the first day of a new postage rate.
Rated: term used by U.S. Post office is 18th and early 19th century for mail to be "rated" or examined to determine fees.
Rate it up: USPS term for mail piece that has been examined and any additional (forwarding, shortage) postage determined.
Rate Mark: numeral on a stampless letter indicating the amount of postage to be collected from the addressee.
Ratni Doprinos: inscription on stamps of Croatia for semi-postals.
Rattlesnake Island: U.S. local post, Lake Erie, began with rectangular stamps, but the USPS required that they change the shape so that their "stamps" would not be confused with regular postage stamps.
RAU: Syria overprint for International Children's Day, 1958.
Raubstaat: (Ger.) country issuing stamps solely to exploit the collector.
Raute: (Ger.) lozenge.
Ravenglass & Eskdale: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
Rawden, Wright, Hatch & Edson: New York security printing firm during 19th century.
Rayer: (Fr.) to delete, to cross out.
Raymond & Co.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
Rayon I, II, III: inscription on early issues of Switzerland indicating a district, or zone system for rates,1850-52; Rayon IV had no stamps, abolished in 1851.
Razitko: (Czech.) postmark.
Razitko z Ochoty: (Czech.) postmark of readiness, a handy postmarking device.
Razitko Zvlástní: (Czech.) special postmark.
Razítkovaná: (Czech.) used, canceled.
RB: 1. Scott Catalog number prefix to identify U.S. Revenue Proprietary. 2. Road Board, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74. 3. Rudolph Bender, BEP employee's initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher Initials.
R.B. & S. Special Delivery: serviced an unknown area, labels exist.
R-Brief: (Ger.) Einschreibebrief, registered letter.
R.B.S.: "Rigsbank Skilling" currency unit in Denmark, 1851.
RC: 1. auction abbreviation for red cross. 2. international postal code for Taiwan. 3. Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Future Delivery.
R.C. & W. (Ryder, Crouse & Welch): see Private die match proprietary stamps.
RCASC: Royal Canadian Army Service Corps, formerly Canadian Army Service Corps, (CASC) 1901, then Canadian Permanent Army Service Corps (CPASC),1903, added Royal in WWI, no longer used after 1968.
R. Commissariato: overprint on stamps of Yugoslavia for Ljubljana (Lubiana), Italian occupation, 1941-45.
RD: 1. Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Stock Transfer. 2. Robert Dailey, BEP employees initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher, Siderographer.
R. de C.: (Sp.) Recargo de Construcción (Reconstruction of Communications) surcharge/ overprint on stamps of Nicaragua for the rebuilding of the Managua General Post Office.
R. de C. Garzon 1894 No Hay Estampillas: (Sp.) Republic of Colombia, Tomina, "No stamps Available"
R de Panama: overprint on stamps of Panama, 1903-04, for use in Bocas del Toro, Panama.
R.D.M.: Rydende Dienst Macht, Orange Free State, local post, 1898-99.
R.D.P.: Roll of Distinguished Philatelists.
RE: 1: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Cordials, Wines, etc. 2: catalog abbreviation for reinforced.
REA: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Beer.
Reading Match Co.: see Private die match proprietary stamps.
Read The News: inscription on stamp labels produced by A.C. Roessler as a copy of the U.S. 1931 2¢ Red Cross issue.
Real: 1: (Sp.) royal 2: currency unit in Central and South America.
Real Photo: postcard made from an actual photograph with a preprinted back.
Real Plata Fuerta: currency in Cuba, Puerto Rico; used as payment for stamps.
Real Renta de Correos: (Sp.) single postal service established by the Spanish Crown in the New World in 1767.
Real Servicio: (Sp.) Royal Service marking from the Spanish colonial period in Mexico.
Reay envelopes: George H. Reay produced fine engraved envelopes of the U.S., 1870-74.
Rebuts: 1: postal marking instruction to return the piece of mail. 2: (Fr.) (service des) undeliverable or refused international mail being returned to sender.
Rebuts Commission: handstamp for St. Thomas, Danish West Indies postage dues for dead letter office.
Recapito Autorizzato: (It.) inscription, or fiscal stamp, denoting the tax on mail permitted to be delivered by private services, also known as "authorized delivery" stamp
Recapito impossible: (It.) undeliverable (mail).
Recargo: (Sp.) "Extra Charge" surcharge, inscription on stamps of Spain for war tax, 1898-99.
Recargo obligatorio: (Sp.) compulsory surcharge.
Recatul Romania: Yugoslavia, bogus.
Receipted parcels: British Post Office parcel service, with serial labels printed in red on yellow paper; similar to Certified Mail.
Received in Damaged Condition: USPS self-adhesive label initiated Fall, 2000, can also be used to seal torn mail.
Received in Damaged Condition: self-adhesive USPS label, initiated in year 2000, as a generic apology for damaged mail, can also be used as a seal in closing tears.
Received from H.M. Ships: British handstamp for letters posted on board ships and bearing a censor cancellation.
Received marking: postmark applied to the back of a cover that denotes the receiving town or city, date and, sometimes, the time of arrival.
Receiver's stamp: handstamp with name or initials of a receiver of Town or City local letters; 17th century.
Receiving cancel: Ankunftstempel (Ger.) ; Marque d'Arrivée (Fr.) ; Obliterazione di Ricevitmento (It.) , Matasellos de Recepción (Sp.).
Receiving house: term formally used in England for place where mail was received.
Receiving mark: a postal marking applied by the receiving post office.
Receiving ship: postmark for a ship with a barrack-like structure used as a temporary home for recruits and transient sailors awaiting assignments to other ships.
Recensement: (Fr.) registration for identity card; French Colonies revenue inscription
Récépissés: receipt; French Colonies revenue inscription
Récépissés de Transport: transportation receipts; French Colonies revenue inscription
Récépissés de Chemin de Fer: railway receipts; French Colonies revenue inscription.
Réception: (Fr.) receipt.
Recess printing: a graphic arts process where the inked image is below the surface of the printing plate; recess printed stamps have a raised image.
Recette: (Fr.) post office.
REC'G CDS: Receiving Circular Date Stamp.
Rechnung: (Ger.) bill, invoice.
Rechromed: replating a printing plate with chrome to extend the useful life after it has been repaired or restored.
Rechts: (Ger., Dut.) right.
Recibo: (Sp.) receipt.
Recife: formerly city of Pernambuco, Brazil.
Reclamado: (Sp.) fees collected over normal postage.
Recoja: (Sp.) collect; to assemble or bring together.
Recom: (Fr.) recommandé (registered), pre-adhesive postmark.
Recomandata: (Rom.) registered letter.
Recomendada: (Sp.) inscription on stamps of Colombia for registered letter, 1881
Recomendado: (Sp.) inscription on stamps of Colombia for registered letter, 1925
Recommande: (Fr.) registered.
Recon: reconstructed.
Reconstruction: re-assemble a sheet of stamp as originally engraved by collecting specimens; also known as plating.
Recorded Delivery: British term for Certified Mail, with a receipt given to the sender.
Recorded message stamps: Fonopostal, used in Argentina, 1939, to prepay fees for messages recorded on disks.
Record flight: flight that establishes a new record for speed, distance, altitude, or endurance.
Records: flexible recorded records sent to scientists in the Antarctic in 1937.
Recortado: (Sp.) cut close.
Recorte: (Sp.) cut square.
Recouvrements: (Fr.) "recoveries," postage due, to collect postage on returned C.O.D. items.
Recouvrements-Taxe a Percevoir: (Fr.) "Value to Collect" inscription on stamps for amount to collect for magazine subscriptions, etc., French language countries.
Recouvrements-Valeurs Impayees: (Fr.) "Value Unpaid" inscription on stamps for amount to collect for magazine subscriptions, etc., French language countries.
Rectification Tax stamps: inscription on U.S. Internal Revenue Service tax stamps for condensed and purified distilled spirits, 1946.
Rectoverso: (Sp.) stamps printed on both sides of the paper.
Reçu: (Fr.) receipt.
Recuerdo del I'De Febrero: (Sp.) Honduras, 1916.
Recut: an unhardened printing plate that has been retouched.
Recycled Paper: replaced watermarked paper starting in 1992.
Red: informal term for a piece of registered mail; name came when registered mail was sent in red-striped pouches.
b 1961 Afghanistan surcharge for Red Crescent Society.
Red Band cover: indicates registered mail in China.
Red Cross: 1: common design on stamps of the French Community of Nations, 1944, 1963. 2: common design of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1963. 3: Rotes Kreuz (Ger.) , Croix-Rouge (Fr.), Croice Rosa (It.), Cruz Roja (Sp.).
Red Cross frank stamps: Switzerland revenue issue; can be found with postmark on covers.
Red Cross Message Scheme: used for the exchange of mail between persons living on opposing sides during World War II, operated out of Switzerland.
Red Cross stamps: semi-postal stamps issued to benefit the Red Cross organization of a nation; was first used in Portugal in 1889.
Redding's Russia Salve: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp.
Redentado: (Sp.) re-perforated.
Red error: the 5˘ red error in the 1917 plate of the 2˘ carmine value.
Red hand: enclosed on a six-pointed star national symbol of Ulster, on Northern Irish stamps.
Redistributed original gum: gum which has been moistened and respread to present the appearance of a non-hinged surface.
Red Line City Express Co.: 1895; stamps, local package delivery serviced the Chicago, Ill area.
Red Line Express Co.: 1892-83; stamps, local package delivery serviced Chicago, Ill area.
Red mercury: Austria newspaper stamp issued in 1856.
Redonda: uninhabited island belonging to Antigua; 1979: stamps valid for postage in Antigua; overprint on stamps of Antigua.
Redondo: (Sp.) round.
Redrawn: a design with the general features of a previous stamp by having a difference in some detail.
Red error: the U.S. 5¢ error in the 2¢ value sheet with Washington's portrait.
Red Revenue surcharge: temporary surcharge used when the Chinese Imperial Post was started in 1897.
Reds: U.S. red commemorative (1920s) and documentary stamps (1940-58).
Red Sea Islands Federation: Red Sea island fantasy.
Red Star: 1973-76, Postal Service, Boston, used a red star for next day delivery at no extra charge.
Red Suspender League: formed in 1959 by Dr. James J. Matejka, Jr. and a group of Chicago area collectors to honor collectors who have helped promote the hobby.
Reduced: a postal piece that has been cut to eliminate uneven edges.
Reed & Thompson: see Private die match proprietary stamps.
Reed's City Despatch Post: U. S. local post, San Francisco, Calif., 1853-54.
Reel perforator: stamps perforated on continuous reels or webs of paper.
Reembolsos: (Sp.) collect on delivery mail.
Reemision: (Sp.) reentry.
Re-engrave: to remake all or a portion of a printing plate or die by making additions or corrections without significantly changing it.
Re-engraved stamp: may have small or major details changed.
Re-entry: 1: created when the transfer roll, with the stamp impression imprinted unevenly on the soft metal of the printing plate creating a weak impression, which is only detectable if there is a second impression or "re-entry." 2: Nachgravierung (Ger.), Retrant (Fr.), Doppia Incisione (It.), Regrabado (Sp.) .
Reenviar: (Sp.) to send-on, to re-address.
Reexpedir: (Sp.) to forward or send on.
Reference numbers: British term for plate numbers on Empire stamps printed by De La Rue & Co.
Reflectance: USPS term for situation where the paper color renders the postal service's equipment unable to read the barcodes; dark colors are out, white works best.
Reformed legislature: India Feudatory State of Hyderabad.
Réfugié: (Fr.) refugee.
Refugiat: (Rom.) refugee.
Refusé: (Fr.) refused.
Refused mail: mail that is not accepted by the addressee and is returned to sender.
Reg: 1: registered. 2: Reggio (Northern Italy) pre-adhesive postmark.
Regat: (Rom.) kingdom.
Regatul PTT Romaniei: "Kingdom of Romania"overprint on stamps of Hungary for Romania, occupation of Transylvania issue, 1919.
Regatul Romaniei: (Rom.) "Kingdom of Romania"overprint on stamps of Hungary, Romanian Occupation, 1918.
Rege: (Rom.) king.
Regence de Tunis: (Fr.) "Regency of Tunis" Tunisia, 1888-1908.
Regensburg: displaced persons camp local post, "Ukrainian Post," 1947-48.
Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro: (It.) "Italian regency of Quarnaro" overprint on stamps of Fiume in Gulf of Carnaro, during occupation by Legionnaires of d'Annunzio," 1920.
Regie P.: (It.) Royal Post (Italy) pre-adhesive postmark.
Regierung: (Ger.) reign, government.
Regierungs Dienstsache: (Ger.) overprint on official stamps of Liechtenstein
Regina: (Rom.) queen.
Regio Esercito: "Royal Army" inscription on Italian label designed to be attached to an official document with an Italian army unit postmark.
Regional commemoratives: new USPS stamp issues in certain areas where they are expected to be popular.
Regional issue: USPS new issue available only in locale where first day issue took place.
Regional Mail Collect.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
Regionals: definitive stamps issued by Great Britain since 1958 for the regions of Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The regionals are usually sold only in the assigned region, but are valid for postage throughout the country.
Regio Post-Noord Oost Friesland (NOF): local post, Netherlands, 2003.
Registered: Eingeschreiben (Ger.), Recommandé (Fr.), Raccomandata (It.), Registrado (Sp.).
Registered envelopes: issued by Great Britain in 1878 for registered mail, with crossed blue lines.
Registered mail: mail with a numbered receipt that is signed by each postal employee as it is handled during processing.
Register mark: any marking that is put on the sheet margin for the exact adjustment of the perforations of the sheet in the production process; usually crosses with point holes.
Registration: 1: in printing, used to designate a part of a design in relation to another part of the same design. 2: keeping the colors "in register" to registration of perforations, die-cutting and tagging.
Registration labels: a numbered gummed label that indicates the registration number and the city of origin for registered articles.
Registration handstamp, first U.S.: an Act of Congress on July 1,1855 authorized registration of valuable letters for a 5˘ charge.
Registration mark: lines, crosses, arrows, letters numerals or a combination engraved into the marginal area of the plates used in printing stamps with several colors to ascertain the degree to which these marks align with each other.
Registration stamps: stamps issued for the payment of registration fees exclusively; some may be in the form of labels with a number written or printed on them.
Registro: (Sp.) "Registered", Columbia-Antioquia, 1896-99.
Registry labels or stamps: U.S., authorized all Foreign Registered Matter to apply the label or stamp on all registered mail; July 1, 1888; use on foreign mail began May 1, 1856 with Great Britain.
Registry markings: different shaped marks used to help in correctly registering the frame and vignette of bi-colored stamps; also known as "Arrow Marker."
Reglement de compte: (Fr.) settling of account.
Regno: (It.) kingdom.
Regno d'Italia Fiume: Kingdom of Italy-Fiume; overprint on stamps of Italy, 1924
Regno d'Italia / Mbretnija Shqiptare: (It., Alb.) overprint on stamps of Italy for Albania, 1940.
Regno d'Italia Trentino: overprint on stamps of Austria, Italian occupation; see Italian Austria.
Regno d'Italia Venezia Giulia: overprint on stamps of Austria, by Italy for the occupation of Trieste, 1918; see Italian Austria.
Regno Unito: (It.) United Kingdom, Great Britain.
Reg.o: (It.) Reggio (Northern Italy) pre-adhesive postmark.
Regomado: (Sp.) regummed.
Regommé: (Fr.) regummed.
Regrabado: (Sp.) reentry, re-engraved.
Regravure: (Fr.) reentry, re-engraving.
Regressive Die Essay: an essay taken from a transfer roll that has been partially cut away to remove any unwanted parts of the design.
Regular issue: stamp issued for an indefinite period and quantity for ordinary use; also known as a definitive.
Regummed (RG): 1: stamp with artificial, or fresh adhesive gum applied. 2: Nachgummiert (Ger.) , Regommé (Fr.) , Rigommato (It.), Regomado (Sp.).
Rehabilitada para el Servicio Publico: (Sp.) overprint on stamps of Honduras air mails to validate for ordinary postage.
Re.He.: République Helvétique (Sw.) Swiss republic.
Rehusado: (Sp.) refused, usually C.O.D. service.
Reich: (Ger.) empire. Often used in the sense of "the" Empire, i.e., Germany.
Reichenberg-Maffersdorf: Sudentenland local post, German occupation, 1938.
Reichpost: (Ger.) inscription on stamps of Germany, imperial post, 1889-1901.
Reifringstempel: (Ger.) hoop and ring cancel.
Reihe: (Ger.) series, row of stamps.
Reimpresion: (Sp.) reprint.
Reimpresiune: (Rom.) reprint.
Réimpression: (Fr.) reprint.
Rein: (Nor.) clean.
Reindeer mail: used in northern Scandinavia and Russia in the early 1900s to deliver mail.
Reina: (Sp.) queen
Reinado: (Sp.) reign
Reine: (Fr.) queen
Reinero: (Ger.) "net receipts," Deutsche Schiller Stiftung, label for donation to Schiller Foundation. Reino: (Sp.) kingdom
Reinosa: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Nationalist, 1937.
Reino Unido: (Sp.) Great Britain, United Kingdom.
Reinrtrag: (Ger.) Deutsche Schiller Stiftung, label for donation to Schiller Foundation.
Reis: currency unit in Angola, Angra, Azores, Brazil, Portugal and colonies.
Reisende Postekspedisjon: (Nor.) Traveling Post Office (TPO).
Reissue: an official reprinting of a stamp that was discontinued.
Rejection markings: identification of flawed material range from hand-placed markings to automated markings; may be red grease pencil, black markers or spray, or slit coils.
Rejete (projet): (Fr.) unadopted (design)
Rejilla: (Sp.) grill, lattice work, refers to early postmarks.
Rejistro: (Sp.) "Registry" inscription on stamps of Colombia.
Rejita: (Sp.) small cut, tear or split
Rejoined perforations: separated perforations that have been reattached by means of a hinge, gum or other chemical means.
Reklamemarken: (Ger.) a non-denominated stamp created to advertise or commemorate a product or event; see Poster stamps.
Rekomando: (Czech.) registered letter.
Rekommandere: (Nor.) register.
Rekommandert: (Nor.) registered.
Rekommandert brev: (Nor.) registered mail.
Rekommenderas: (Swed.) registration for mail sent abroad from Sweden.
Rekommenderat: (Swed.) registered.
Rekommenderat brev: (Swed.) registered letter, registered mail.
Rekommenderade brev: (Swed.) registered letters, registered mails.
Rekommandiert: (Ger.) registered; also Einschreiben.
Rekonstruksjon: (Nor.) reconstruction.
Rekonstruktion: (Swed.) reconstruction.
Reko-Zettel: (Ger.) Austrian registration label.
Relais: inscription on nonpostal labels of Persia attached to railroad tickets to allow bearer to ride in the post wagon or mail coach between stops not covered by the railroads.
Relax in Wisconsin: poster stamp with instructions on where to write.
Release date: formal date that the issuing postal administration puts an item on public sale.
Relief: 1: Normal reproduction of the design on a die, in reverse. 2: (Fr.) embossing.
Relief printing: print from a printing base which is supposed to appear in color on stamps raised above the non-printing areas, and only the color-producing areas meet the paper at the moment of impression.
Relieve: (Sp.) printing relief, embossing
Relievo, In Relievo: (It.) relief.
Reli Post: private delivery firm based in the Netherlands Revenue stamp, side: roulettes, part perforated, silk and unwatermarked paper, 1887 definition.
Reliure: (Fr.) binder.
Remail: mail service sent to another country to be placed into international mail systems to save lower postage costs in effect in cooperating nation
Remainders: 1: stamps remaining on hand at postal administration after the issue has been discontinued 2: stamp collection, usually mounted in album(s) from which the most desirable items have been removed
Remanente di charnela: (Sp.) hinge remnant.
Remarque: a small original drawing made by an artist in the margin of a print; seen in margins of federal duck stamps.
Remboursemente: (Fr.) cash on delivery, COD.
Rembrandt Press: used in the photogravure production of postage stamps by the Reserve Bank of Australia
Remita sus Cartas en Sobres Oblongos: (Sp.) handstamp "Send your messages in oblong envelopes."
Remitente: (Sp.) sender
Remitida por Tren por Suspension de Vuelo: (Sp.) handstamp "Sent by train, owing to flight cancellation."
Remolcador: (Sp.) tug, found on naval marks of the Civil war
Remote encoding facility: USPS term for 55 offices where images of envelopes were received and routing codes added electronically, used for handwritten addresses, etc which machines could not read at the time; started early 1990s, being phased out in 2001.
Ren: (Dan., Swed) clean.
Rena Test Stamp: self-adhesive test stamp of unknown origin.
Renecke: town in the Transvaaal; 1900, June 23: local stamps overprinted V.R. during South-African war.
Rendez Honneur aux Quattri Libertes: (Fr.) Honor the Four Freedoms, private overprint on stamps of Italy.
Renfe: (Sp.) "Red Nacional de Ferrocarriles" Spanish National Railways
Renglon: (Sp.) written or printed line on stamps as in the "Republica Espanola" overprint of 1931
Rengravado: (Sp.) re-entry.
Renta interior: (Sp.) internal revenue.
Rentapostman: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
Rentierschlittenpost: (Ger.) reindeer post.
Renversé: (Fr.) inverted
Rep.: repaired
Repaired: 1: stamps or covers that have been altered or repaired to reinforce or to resemble an undamaged item; this can be the repair of a tear, changing of perforations, etc. 2: a corrected flaw in typographed or line-engraved printing 3: Repariert (Ger.) , Réparé (Fr.) , Riparato (It.) , Reparado (Sp.)
Repaired paper: term used for paper from the beginning or end of rolls in rotary printing, which has been joined together by overlapping.
Repaired stamp: usually a fake and/or patched stamp to enhance its appearance for exhibition purposes.
Reparacion: (Sp.) repair
Reparado: (Sp.) repaired
Reparasjon: (Nor.) repair.
Reparation: (Dan., Swed) repair.
Réparé: (Fr.) repaired
Reparerad: (Swed.) repaired.
Repareret: (Dan.) repaired.
Reparert: (Dan., Nor.) repaired.
Repariert: (Ger.) repaired.
Rep. de Cuba: inscription in center of stamp across the shield is a cinderella produced by unsuccessful revolutionaries in 1875.
Rep. Dem. Allemande: (Fr.) German Democratic Republic.
Rep. di S. Marino: (It.) San Marino.
Reperforated: stamp that has been perforated anew to defraud the collector.
Repter: (Hung.)airport.
Repiquage: (Fr.) perforation altered or repaired.
Rep. Italiana: (It.) Italy.
Replacado: (Sp.) damaged stamps which have been repaired and affixed to a new paper backing
Replacement Value: the price a buyer expects to pay for an item based on catalogue value, advertised price or dealer quote.
Replaquage: (Fr.) paper repair.
Replicas: printed stamp reproductions were made as space fillers; usually printed in one color, mostly blue, for collectors to use to fill blank spaces in their albums.
Reply coupon: international coupons, exchangeable in any nation of the Postal Union for single rate postage from that nation; also known as an International Reply Coupon, or IRC..
Reply paid: envelopes, postcards and package labels with a special inscription that permits recipient to reply without paying the postage
Reply portion: the part of a reply paid postal card that is used for the response
Reply postcard: two postcards joined together, one for original message, other for recipient's reply.
Repoblika Malagasy: inscription on stamps of Madagascar; see Malagasy Republic.
Repubblica Sociale Italiana Base Atlantica: (It.) overprint on stamps of Italy for use in Bordeaux, France from June 1940 to 1944.
Repoeblik Indonesia: bogus labels by independence forces before Indonesia became a republic.
Repoeblik Maloekoe Selatan: bogus labels for South Moluccas.
Report: (Fr., Ger.) transfer
Reporte: (Sp.) transfer of the design of a stamp from the transfer roller to the printing plate
Repoussage: (Fr.) the knocking up of a low point in a printing plate from the back to bring it to the correct height for printing or retouching.
Repp paper: ribbed paper with fine ribbing on the surface
Repr.: reprint.
Reprint: 1: stamps printed from the original plates after the issue has become demonetized or obsolete; usually reprints have a distinguishing feature so that the difference can be seen 2: USPS uses term for a stamp with the same denomination and design as previously issued, not reproduced on the same plates. 3: Nachdruck (Ger.) , Réimpression (Fr.) , Ristampa (It.), eimpressión (Sp.) Reproductions: stamps made from a new plate to imitate the original issue as the U.S. Special Printing issue of 1875.
Rep.Shqiptare: Albania.
Rep Sociale Italiana: (It.) Italy, Italian Social Republic, 1944
Repter: (Hung.) airport.
Reptil: (Sp.) reptile (thematic).
Repubblica Democratica Alemagna: (It.) East Germany (D.D.R.).
Repubblica Democratica Tedesca: (It.) East Germany (D.D.R.).
Repubblica di San Marino: (It.) San Marino.
Repubblica Federale Alemagna: (It.) West Germany (B.R.D.).
Repubblica Federale Tedesca: (It.) West Germany (B.R.D.).
Repubblica Italiana: (It.) Italy
Repubblica Popolare Cinese: (It.) People's Republic of China (P.R.C.).
Repubblica Sociale Italiana: Italian Social Republic; September 15, 1943: establishment of new government in northern Italy area occupied by the Germans.1944-45: stamps for German-occupied North Italy.
Repub. Franc: France, French Colonies general issue; inscription on first stamps of France.
Repub. Hiber: bogus S. Allan Taylor fantasy issue for Ireland.
Republica, Repubblica, Republik, République: Republic.
Republica: overprint on stamps during the royal period of Portugal, 1911-12.
República de China: (Sp.) Republic of China.
Republica Congo: overprint on Portuguese colonies for Purtuguese Congo.
Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial: Republic of Equatorial Guinea.
Republica de la N'Granada: inscription on stamps of Colombia for Cauca.
Republica del Ecuador Servicio Aerea: surcharge "1 sucre, 1939," triangular label prepared but never released.
República Democrática de Alemania: (Sp.) East Germany (D.D.R.).
Republica de Palombia: stamps produced by a Belgian magazine
Republica Dominicana: (Sp.) Dominican Republic
Republica Espanola: (Sp.) Republic of Spain.
Republica Espanola Timbre del Estado: (Sp.) overprint for fiscal use as a War Tax issue.
República Federal de Alemania: (Sp.) West Germany (BR.D.).
Republica Guine: overprint on stamps of Macao, Portutuese Africa or Timor for Portuguese Guinea.
Republica Inhambane: overprint on Portuguese colonies, Inhambane, 1913.
Republica Mayor de Centro America Estado de El Salvador: (Sp.) Republic of the State of El Salvador.
Republica Mocambique: Mozambique overprint.
Republican: workers government of Spain during the Spanish Civil War, 1936-39.
Republica Oriental de Uruguay: (Sp.) inscription on stamps of Uruguay, 1864-66.
Republica Oriental del Uruguay: (Sp.) Uruguay, 1866-1961.
Republica Peruana: (Sp.) Republic of Peru.
Republica Populara Romina: inscription on stamps of Romania after 1948.
Republica Portuguesa: Republic of Portugal
Republica Sociale Italiana: Italian Socialist Republic, Northern Italy state established by Germany, 1943
Republic Maluku Selatan: unrecognized stamps of South Moluccas.
Republic of Botswana: overprint on stamps of Bechuanaland Protectorate, Botswana, 1966.
Republic of Djibouti: 1977, June 27: first stamps, former French territory of Afars and Issas.
Republic of Guinea: 1959, Jan. 5: first stamps issued, 1958,. Oct.: voted to leave the French Community. see French Guinea.
Republic of Moroc-Songhrati-Meads: reincarnation of Kingdom of Humanity, bogus
Republic of West Florida: Americans living in this area of Spanish West Florida proclaimed it as a republic in 1810, administered as part of Orleans Territory.
Republiek Stellaland: Republic of Stellaland
Republiek van Suid-Afrika: (Afrik.) Republic of South Africa, 1961-71.
Republik: (Dan., Swed) Republic.
Republika Bosna i Hercegovina: inscription on Bosnia and Herzegovina stamps, 1993-95 for Muslim government in Sarajevo.
Republika Hrvatska: (Croat) Croatia Republika Korce Shqipetare: "Republic of Korytza, Albania" French zone overprint on stamps of Albania, 1916; see Epirus.
Republika Malagasy: Republic of Malagasy
Republika NG. Pilipinas: Philippines, Japanese occupation, 1943
Republikansk: (Dan., Nor., Swed) Republican.
Republika Popullore e Shqiiperise: Popular Republic of Albania.
Republika Srpska: see Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serb Administration in Banja Luka.
Republik China: (Ger.) Republic of China (Taiwan).
Republik Indonesia Serikat: Indonesia.
Republikk: (Nor.) Republic.
Republik Maluku Selatan: bogus triangular label made during early 1950s for South Moluccas, Indonesia.
Republik Österreich: (Ger.) Austria Republique Arabe Sahraoui Democratique: inscription on illegal issue, reported to the UPU April 10, 2000 by Morocco, not valid for postage.
Republique Arabe Unie-Syrie: United Arab Republic, Syria, 1958
Republique Autonome du Togo: Independent Republic of Togo.
Republique Centrafricaine: Central African Republic.
Republique d'Azerbaijan: Republic of Azerbaijan, 1919-22
République de Chine: (Fr.) Republic of China (Taiwan)
Republique de Cote d'Ivoire: (Fr.) Republic of Ivory Coast
Republique de Guinee: (Fr.) Republic of Guinea
Republique de Haute Volta: (Fr.) Republic of Upper Volta
Republique Democratique du Congo: (Fr.) Democratic Republic of Congo
Republique d'Haiti: (Fr.) Republic of Haiti
Republique du Cameroun: (Fr.) Republic of Cameroon
Republique du Congo: (Fr.) Republic of Congo
Republique du Dahomey: (Fr.) Republic of Dahomey
Republique du Gabonaise: (Fr.) Republic of Gabon
Republique du Mali: (Fr.) Republic of Mali
Republique du Niger: (Fr.) Republic of Niger.
Republique Populaire du Benin: (Fr.) overprint/surcharge on air mail issues; People's Republic of Benin.
Republique du Semaj: Artistamp, James reversed
Republique du Senegal: (Fr.) Republic of Senegal
Republique du Tchad: (Fr.) Republic of Chad
Republique du Togo: (Fr.) Republic of Togo
Republique Française: (Fr.) Republic of France, French Colonies general issues.
Republique Gabonaise: (Fr.) Republic of Gabon.
Republique Georgienne: (Fr.) Republic of Georgia, now part of Russia
Republique Islamique de Mauritanie: (Fr.) Islamic Republic of Mauritania
Republique Gabonaise: (Fr.) Republic of Gabon.
Republique Khmere: (Fr.) Republic of Cambodia
Republique Libanaise: (Fr.) Republic of Lebanon
Republique Malgache: (Fr.) Republic of Madagascar (Malagasy)
République Populaire de Chine: (Fr.) People's Republic of China (P.R.C.)
Republique Rwandaise: (Fr.) Republic of Rwanda
Republique Syrienne: (Fr.) Republic of Syria
Republique Togolaise: (Fr.) Republic of Togo
Republique Tunisienne: (Fr.) Republic of Tunisia
Republique Uni du Cameroun / Republic of Cameroon: (Fr.) see Cameroon.
Repulo Posta: overprint on stamps of Hungary for air mail.
Repülos osztagok: (Hung.) military aviation mail.
Repülötér: (Hung.) airport.
Repuqlika Shqiptare: error variety, B upside down, overprint on stamp (Sc. 182) of Allbania.
Requena: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican,1937.
Requete: (Sp.) Carlist fighting unit found on military markings during the Civil War
Requetes: (Sp.) Civil War charity stamps for the benefit of the Carlist forces
Reseau pneumatique: (Fr.) pneumatic post.
Resellado: (Sp.) resealed, re-authorized.
Resellado: (Sp.) 1: overprint on stamps of Venezuela to restore validity to demonetized stamps, 1900, 1937, 1943, and 1951 2: overprint on stamps of Ecuador as a control mark.
Resello: (Sp.) overprint on demonetized stamps of Nicaragua to restore validity.
Reserve: auction term meaning that the seller has the right to withhold the article from sale if the highest bid does not meet his estimate of what it should bring.
Resetting: a new arrangements of cliches in a plate that produces a tete-beche layout.
Reserveschutzgebot: (Ger.) protective reserve bid.
Resguardo: (Sp.) registered letter acknowledgment receipt.
Resistance: overprint on stamps of Syria for military semi-postal.
Resmi: overprint/inscription, with crescent and star, on stamps of Turkey officials.
Resort stamps: private stamps used to prepay postage from resorts in Cairns, Australia to destination.
Respuesta: (Sp.) reply portion of a double postcard
Restant de stock: (Fr.) remainder.
Restaurado: (Sp.) restored, repaired
Restauriert: (Ger.) restored, repaired
Restbeholdning: (Nor.) stock remainder.
Restbestand: (Ger.) remainder stock
Restricted: “restricted” air mail stamps can only be used for airmail and are not valid for other postal or non-postal uses; see Unrestricted.
Restricted Delivery: requires a fee, which permits the delivery of an item of mail only to the addressee or to the addressee’s agent.
Retail option: retail Postal Service customers can access delivery information by calling a toll-free number or via Internet inquiry; USPS term.
Retardo: (Sp.) "Late" overprint/inscription for late fee charge in Spanish language nations.
Rete: (It.) burelage, a fine overall network of dots or lines printed on the surface of stamps in addition to the stamps' design. This is usually done to discourage counterfeiting.
Rethymnon: district in Crete; Russian administration issued stamps May-June1899
Retocado: (Sp.) retouched
Retouch: 1: correction done by hand-engraving on the plate or cylinder 2: flaws corrected on photogravure stamps 3: repairs to a flaw that resulted from an alteration or repair.
Retour: (Fr.) postal marking instruction to return the piece of mail.
Retour à l'expedéditeur: (Fr.) return to sender.
Retourbrief: (Ger.) inscription on stamps issued by Bavaria and Norway for use on mail returned to sender without any further charges
Retourbrief Kgl Oberamt: (Ger.) inscription for return letter stamps of Bavaria.
Retourbrief Kgl Oberpostamt Regensburg: (Ger.) inscription for return letter stamps of Regensburg.
Retourmarken: (Ger.) return to sender handstamp or seal.
Retourstempel: (Ger.) return to sender handstamp or seal.
Retourrezepisse: (Ger.) acknowledgment of receipt.
Retraites: (Fr.) pensions; French Colonies revenue inscription.
Retta: canceling device made of an elongated diamond of dots, used in Egypt and Sudan for rural district mail
Rettile: (It.) reptile (thematic).
Returmærke: (Dan.) return (mail) stamp.
Returmärken: (Swed.) return (mail) postage stamp(s).
Returmerke(r): (Nor.) return (mail) postage stamp(s).
Return address: 1: element of a mailpiece that is usually placed in the upper left corner of the mailpiece to indicate the sender; indicates where the sender wants the mail returned if it is undeliverable and where the sender will pay any fee due for that mail. 2: Absendervermerk (Ger.)
Return card: term used for addresses on envelopes for return to sender purposes, also known as corner card.
Returned by Messenger as Undeliverable: special delivery mail is entitled to one "special delivery" delivery, if no one available to receive mail, mail is returned to post office for next regular delivery.
Returned mail: marking on mail indicating returned to sender for any reason
Return from Norfolk Islands: Pitcairn Islands, marking inhabitant's return to the island
Returned letter stamp: a post office label or seal placed on a letter returned to sender because it was undeliverable for any reason.
Return receipt: USPS mailing forms signed by the addressee of an article and mailed back to the sender as evidence of delivery.
Return to Sender by censor: mail piece that was censored and returned when it was determined that it was addressed to an enemy nation.
Retus: (Rom.) retouch.
Retüsch: (Ger.) retouch.
Retvendt stempel: (Dan.) perfectly placed cancellation.
Retymno: Crete, Russian post office, 1899 Sc. 10-46 Crete.
Reunion: Indian Ocean island, 400 miles east of Madagascar; currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc 1852, Jan.1: No.1, 15 centimes black blue, first stamps, Ile de la Réunion inscription, 1864-1940: served by packet-boats direct from Marseille or Aden, via Seychelles or Zanzibar, 1885-91: overprint / surcharge on stamps of French Colonies, 1892-1905: inscription on stamps of French Colonies, 1907-33: own stamps with RF, 1915: first semipostal stamp issued, 1931: first stamp, 1931-47: Reunion with “Postes,” 1937: first air mail stamp issued, 1943: overprint on stamps of Reunion “France Libre,” Free France, 1946, Mar.: ceased to be a colony, became an overseas Department of France, 1949-74: stamps of France surcharged with CFA, Colonies Francaises d’ Afrique, French African Colony, the currency in French African francs, 1947, Jan. 1: colony of Reunion became a part of the French Republic, 1975, Jan.1: surcharge changed to FCFA (French metropolitan franc) from CFA, replaced by stamps of France.
Reus: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican, 1937
Re-use of postage stamps: Congress enacted legislation on July 16, 1862, making the re-use of U.S. postage stamps punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary.
Revalidado: revalidation, overprint on stamps of Portugal.
Revalidate: to restore validity after a stamp has been demonetized; usually by an overprint.
Revalidated: restored to validity after being demonetized.
Revalorizada 1975: 1975 overprint on stamp of Chile as surcharge.
Revalued: a postal stationery piece with an additional indicium imprinted beside the original one that alters the total denomination. 1˘ postal card revalued to 2˘ January 1, 1952.
Revell, Martin F.: postmaster, Annapolis, Md, 1844-49, issued Postmaster's Provisional envelope.
Revenue: overprint on British Honduras, 1899.
Revenue Act of July 1, 1862: start of taxation of 28 categories including documentary articles and proprietary items to help fund the Union cause in the Civil War; simplified on Dec. 25, 1862 ( second Issue revenues) where any type of stamp could be used to indicate the prepayment of any tax.
Revenue Division: APS term for exhibition classification to include revenue exhibits, history and special studies.
Revenue proof: originally made from proof reading sheets by Butler, Carpenter Company
Revenue stamp: 1: stamp issued to pay various types of taxes, generally denominated in currency; some show exemption from tax such as tax-exempt government services. 2: some may be considered cinderellas; also called "Fiscals." 3: U.S. Congress enacted law creating the second Federal issue of embossed revenue stamps in 1801. 4: Fiskalischemarke (Ger.) , Timbre Fiscal (Fr.),, Francobollo Fiscale (It.), Sello Fiscal (Sp.).
Revenue stamp, first: paper squares were embossed in hand presses and sold for tax-paid revenue use in Holland, 1579.
Revenue stamp mutilator: In accordance with a circa 1915 Internal Revenue Department [on the War Tax Revenue Law], all revenue stamps to the value of ten cents or more had to be mutilated with three parallel incisions, cut through the stamp after being affixed to the document. This was in addition to stamping the same with the initials of the user and date of use. Commercial devices produced to meet this requirement are known as "revenue stamp mutilators."
Revenue stamp, straight: perforated and unperforated stamps; 1887 definition.
Revenue stamped paper: various items with stamped, inked impressions on the paper itself; used to underwrite the American Civil War (1865-83) and the Spanish-American War (1898-1902); usually found as bank checks and railway tickets.
Revers: (Fr.) reverse
Reversed: a left/right mirror image, usually refers to a watermark
Reversed perforation: perforations applied to the back of the sheets, instead of, as normal, to the front.
Reversed print: design visible on stamp back.
Reversed watermark: due to paper inserted upside down, paper received inverted watermark; note the watermark should read correctly when viewed from the front of the stamp.
Reverso: (Sp.) back, as opposed to the front of a philatelic object.
Revisado: (Sp.) examined, censored.
Revised Constitution 1959: Aden overprint for introduction of constitution.
Revista: (Sp.) magazine, periodical
Reverso: (Sp.) reverse side, back
Revoyer: (Fr.) to send back, to return.
Rey: (Sp.) king
Réznyomás: (Hung.) engraved..
Rézvörös: (Hung.) copper-red (color) (also vörösréz).
RF: 1. Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Playing Card. 2. France overprint on stamps for United States République Française (French Republic), authorized by U.S. authorities in North Africa and French Admiralty to permit French military to use American military air post; 1945.
RF, Rfr: Franc, currency unit in Rwanda.
R.F.D.: Rural Free Delivery
RFV: Scott Catalog number prefix for Playing Card (D.W.I.).
RFW: Ralph F. Wurtz, BEP employees initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher, Siderographer.
RG: 1: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Silver Tax. 2: Regummed. 3: Registrar General, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74.
R.H.: 1: (Fr.) République D'Haiti (Republic of Haiti) postage dues, 1898 2: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Cigarette Tube 3: Receiving House
Rheatown, Tenn. Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters' Provisionals.
Rhiga Colonial Club Resort: cinderella for Cairns Colonial Club Resort, Australia.
Rhineland Pfalz: see Rhineland Palatinate.
Rhineland Palatinate: French occupation of area of Germany; 1947: first French stamps in pfennig currency issued, 1948: first semi-postal stamp issued 1949: first commemorative stamp issued; now a state in Federal Republic of Germany
Rhein-Ruhr-Hilfe: overprint on semi-postal stamps of Germany.
Rhode Island: 1: first federal issue revenue of United States,, July 1, 1798-Feb. 28, 1801. 2: supervisors' seal revenue, March 2, 1799.
Rhodes: Dodecanese Island, Aegean Islands, aka Rodi; 1845-1948: Austria, Great Britain, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Russia and Turkey had offices on Rhodes, 1852, Sept.: French post office opened, closed Sept. 1887, reopened Jan.1896, closed 1924, 1912- pre: Italians seized island, used stamps of Turkey, 1912: overprinted Rodi, 1912: No.1, 2 centesimi orange brown, overprint “Rodi” on stamps of Italy, 1916: first stamps without overprints, 1920: Turkey ceded group to Italy, 1934: first air mail, postage due stamps, 1943, Sept.: became part of Greece, 1943: reoccupied by German forces, first semi-postal stamps, 1944: overprint “Weihnachten” prepared locally for German military mail, but not authorized, 1945: liberated by Allied forces, 1945, June 11: stamps of Britain overprinted “M.E.F.” (Middle East Forces), when islands transferred to Greece, 1947, March 31: British post offices closed; stamps of Greece overprinted “S.D.D.” (Dodecanese Military Occupation), 1947-summer: stamps of Greece used.
Rhodes: Aegean Islands; see Interpostal Seals, 1880
Rhodesia: southeastern Africa, formerly Southern Rhodesia, aka British South Africa; currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1967) 1890-1919: administered by the British South Africa Company, 1890: No.1, 1 penny black, 1896, May 22: stamps of Cape of Good Hope overprinted “British South Africa Company,” 1909: name of Rhodesia appeared as an overprint, 1910: Rhodesia as an inscription, 1923: divided and part became the British Crown Colony of Southern Rhodesia 1924: balance became Protectorate of Northern Rhodesia, 1953, Sept. 3: Federation of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland formed from Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1954: first stamps as Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1961: postage due stamps of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1964, Oct.: Southern Rhodesia adopted name of Rhodesia, 1965, May 17: separate issues for Rhodesia, 1965, June 17: first postage due stamps for Rhodesia, 1965, Nov. 11: unilaterally declared its independence, 1965, Dec. 8: first stamps as Rhodesia, not recognized as valid by Britain 1965-67: overprint on postage dues, 1978, Oct. 18: last issue as Rhodesia, 1980, April 18: Rhodesia became Zimbabwe; see Zimbabwe.
Rhodesia: overprint on stamps of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of: Federation of Southern and Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland Protectorate; currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound 1953, Aug. 1: Federation of Southern, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland created, 1954, July 1: No.1, ½ pence vermillion, first stamp by the Federation, 1961, Apr.19: first postage due stamp, 1963, Dec. 31: Federation dissolved, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland issued own stamps, Southern Rhodesia used Federation stamps, 1964, Feb. 19: Southern Rhodesia issued own stamps, 1965, Dec.: first postage due stamps.
Rhodesia-G.B. E.M.S.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
Rhodesia, Northern: southern Africa, separated from Southern Rhodesia by the Zambezi River; 1895: used stamps of the British South Africa Company, 1895-1900: administered by North East Rhodesia, 1890s: mail from North West Rhodesia delivered by runners, 1895: placed under control of British South Africa Company, 1900: North East Rhodesia also used stamps of the British South Africa Company, overprinted “B.C.A.,” routed via British Central Africa, 1911: unified as Northern Rhodesia, 1923: part of the British Crown, 1924, Apr. 1: made a British protectorate, 1925, Apr.1: No.1, ½ penny dark green, first stamps issued, 1929: first postage due stamp. 1953: joined the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1954-63: used stamps of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Federation, 1963, Dec. 10: separate issues resumed after Federation dissolved, 1964, Oct. 24: became Republic of Zambia; see Rhodesia; Rhodesia, Southern; Rhodesia and Nyasaland and Zambia.
Rhodesia, Southern: Africa, bordering on Bechuanaland and Mozambique; 1923, Oct.1: became British Crown Colony, 1924, April 1: first stamps issued, 1954-65: used stamps of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Federation, 1964, Oct.: adopted name of Rhodesia.
Rhodesie: (Fr.) Rhodesia.
Rhodos: (Swed.) Rhodes.
Rhonda & Swansea Bay: Wales railway local post.
R.H./Official: Royal Household/Official overprint for use of staff at royal residences.
R.H. Official: overprint of British official stamps, for use by Royal Household, 1902-04.
Rhymney Railway: Wales railway local post.
RI: 1: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Potato Tax. 2: USPS abbreviation for Rhode Island. 3. international postal code for Indonesia.
Rial: currency unit in Iran, Oman.
Rialtas Sealdac na Héireann 1922: overprint on stamps of Great Britain for provincial government of Ireland, Irish Free State.
Riau (Riouw) Archipeligo: two groups of islands off coast of Sumatra; WW II: occupied by Japan, 1954, Jan. 1: overprint "Riau" on stamps of Indonesia and the Netherlands Indies, required due to currency differences of the islands, 1965, Dec.: stamps withdrawn after revaluation of the rupiah, 1957: overprints in solid letters on stamps of Indonesia, see Indonesia, 1954-60
Ribadeo: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Nationalist, 1937.
Ribbed: Giriffelt (Ger.) , Côtele (Fr.) , Scanalatura (It.) , Costillado (Sp.)
Ribbed paper: paper which shows fine parallel ridges on one or both sides of a stamp, aka Repp paper.
Ribbed frame: varieties of encased postage with fine parallel lines on the silver side of the metal case.
Ribbed gum: stamp adhesive with evenness changed into narrow, parallel strips to counteract paper curl.
Ribbed paper: paper showing on the surface a continuous series of ribs or ridges.
Ribraltar: British Colonial Royal Wedding frames from book Surreal Stamps and Unreal Stickers.
Rice & Peck's Express: operated via the New York & Erie Railroad (1841-61); used corner card of envelopes and labels.
Rice paper: thin hard white paper; used for Salvador 1889 issue, special printing.
Ricevitoria: (It.) post office.
Ricevuta: (It.) receipt.
Ricevuta di Imposizione: (It.) receipt of fee, tax. Rich & Weston's Express: local express company serviced Plymouth, Mass., labels
Richardson, D.M.: see Private die match proprietary stamps.
Richardson Match Co.: see Private die match proprietary stamps.
Richmond Bureau: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
Richmond Letter Courier: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
Richmond, Texas Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters' Provisionals.
Richmond, Va.: occupied by British from May, 1781 until Dec. 1781.
Richland: stamps produced from cigarette wrappers, bogus
Rich's Express: local baggage and freight company, serviced Brooklyn, N.Y. and New York City, labels.
Richwood’s Dispatch: fantasy local post, La Hoyt, Iowa, 1887.
Ricketts & Hall: U.S. local post, Baltimore, Md., 1857.
Ricketts index: research file of various philatelic material, also available as Ricketts United States Index; US Locals, Bibliography index; available from APRL; see : APRL.
Rickshaw: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
Riddell, J. J.: postmaster, New Orleans, La., issued Postmaster's Provisional adhesive and envelope.
Ridged gum: uneven stamp adhesive due to use of a metal roller so that the gum was applied to the stamp paper in fine streams so that the gum dries in humps on the ridges.
Riel: currency unit of Cambodia.
Rift: (Dan., Nor.) tear.
Riga: (It.) horizontal row.
Right and Reverse: term that results from the stacking of printed stamps whose ink is not dry; the right-reverse impression occurs when the inked image is carried on the cylinder which prints the image on several following sheets on the wrong side.
Rigi-Kaltbad: Switzerland hotel post, 1851-64
Rigi-Scheideck: Switzerland hotel post, 1868-80.
Rigi-Staffel: Switzerland hotel post, 1878-79.
Rigommato: (It.) regummed.
Rigsbank skilling: currency unit in Denmark prior to 1875
Rigsdaler: currency unit in Iceland prior to 1876
Rijeka: name given to Fiume by Croations.
Ríjen: (Czech.) October.
Riksbrev: (Swed.) inland letters.
Riksvapnet: (Swed.) national coat-of-arms.
Rik(x)sdaler: currency unit in Sweden, 1858-74
Rik(x)sdaler Banco: currency unit in Sweden prior to 1858
Rilieve: (It.) embossing.
Rimless CDS: no circle surrounding circular date stamp.
Rin: currency unit in Japan. 1876-99
Rincon de la Victoria: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Nationalist, 1937-38.
Ring: name given to band of seven stamp dealers accused of bid-rigging at stamp auctions in the U.S. and Europe, 2001.
Ringbolt: U.S. Navy code name during WW II for Tulagi Island, British Solomon Islands.
Ringgit: currency unit in Malaysia.
Ringgold, Georgia five cents: see Confederate Postmasters' Provisionals.
Ring stamps: refers to Swedish early stamps depicting a circular ring.
Ring's Vegetable Ambrosia: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp.
Ringtype: (Dan., Ger.) ring type numerical oblit cancellation.
Rio de Oro: “River of Gold” Spanish territory in northwest coast of Africa, aka Western Sahara; currency: 100 centimos = 1 peseta 1885, Jan. 9: Spanish protectorate, administered from Canary Islands, 1901: used stamps of Spain, 1905: No.1, 1 centimo blue green, stamps first issued, 1924: combined with Saguiet el Hamra; renamed Spanish Sahara; see Cabo Juby, Rio de Oro, Spanish Guinea and Spanish Sahara.
Riogordo: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Nationalist, 1937-38
Rio Hacha: see Magdalena
Rio Muni: west Africa; formerly Fernando Po and part of Spanish Guinea; currency: 100 centimos = 1 peseta 1959, July 30: overseas province of Spain, used stamps of Spanish Guinea, 1960, April 27: No.1, 25 centimos dull blue violet, colonial stamps of Spain inscribed “Rio Muni,” 1960: first semipostal stamp, 1968, Oct. 12: merged with Fernando Po, Eloby, Annobon and Corisco to become Republic of Equatorial Guinea.
Rios 19: overprint on stamps of Ecuador; Los Rios provincial control mark, 1902.
Riotinto: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Nationalist, 1937-38
Riouw: aka Riau-Lingga; south-east of Singapore, part of Netherlands East Indies; 1954: surcharge in Straits currency on stamps of Indonesia.
Riparato: (It.) repaired.
Ripcord cover: novelty cover from air force parachute personnel with a string under the stamp and instruction to "Pull rip-cord right and down," symbolic of the parachute rip-cord.
Ripon: local, Colombia, 1930-34
Ripoll: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican 1937
Riporto: (It.) transfer
Riposte mark: computer-generated postage system with colorful indicia.
Rippindale and District: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
Ripple gum: a gum used in Germany to produce a non-curling effect.
R.I.S.: Republik Indonesia Serikat; Indonesia overprint on stamps of Netherlands Indies, 1950.
Riss: (Ger., Swed.) little tear
Ristampa: (It.) reprint.
Riststempel: (Nor.) grid or bar oblit cancellation.
Ritaglio: (It.) cut square.
Ritcherdson's Express: 1857?; local express company that serviced Missouri and Kansas territory, labels.
Ritentivo: (It.) binder.
Riticco: (It.) retouch.
Riudor de Bages: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican 1937.
Riu-Kiu-Inseln: (Ger.) Ryukyu Islands.
Rivadavias: Argentina stamps with design of Bernardino Rivadavia, issued in 1864-90.
River Express Co.: 1894; mail express company that serviced Calif; issued corner card.
Riverside & Arlington Railway Express: operated on electric trolleys,
Riverside, Calif., Express Stamp
River steamer mail: steamboat New Orleans carried first mail by steamer on Jan. 23, 1812 from New Orleans to Natchez.
Rives: watermark seen on French-Area artist’s die proofs.
Riyal: currency unit in Dubia (from 1966), Hejaz (from 1928), Qatar (from 1967), Saudi Arabia, (from 1960), Umm al Qiwain (from 1967), and Yemen
Rizeh (Rize): city in Russia, overprint on stamps of Russia, Offices in Turkish Empire, 1909-10, issued to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Russian post offices in the Turkish Empire.
RJ: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Tobacco Sale Tax.
RJA: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Narcotic Tax.
RJL: Robert J. Little, BEP employees initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher, Siderographer.
RK: 1: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Consular Service Fee. 2: auction abbreviation for topical rockets and space.
Rkioymoy Atzinae Aenta: (Resembles these letters) Thrace overprint on stamps of Turkey.
RL: 1: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Customs Fee. 2: (Fr.) Rayon Limitrophe (border radius) a reduced arte for towns within the border zone 3: (It.) Repubblica Ligure (Genoese Republic, Italy). 4. international postal code for Lebanon.
R.L.B.: Returned Letter Branch
Rl. Plata F.: currency unit in Cuba, Philippines
R.L.S.: Returned Letter Section
RM: 1: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Embossed Revenue Stamped Paper. 2: USPS abbreviation for room in addresses. 3: Reichsmark: currency unit in Germany.
RMK: Republic of Mountainous Karabakh, not a UPU member.
Rmnt: abbreviation for remnant.
R.M.S.: 1: Railway Mail Service 2: Royal Mail Ship 3: Railway Mail Sorter (India)
RN: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Stamped paper.
RNS: overprint on stamps of Bussahir, India use is questionable.
RO: 1: auction abbreviation for Roosevelt topic. 2: Roumelie Orientale overprint on stamps of Turkey for Eastern Rumelia (Roumelia), 1880 3: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Private Die Match. 4. international postal code for Romania.
Roadman's Penny Post: local post, source unknown.
Roavoamena: Madagascar local issue.
Roberts & Co's Express: local service between Philadelphia and Norristown, Pa.
Robertsport: city in Liberia, registration inscription, 1893-1924.
Robison & Co.: U. S. local post, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1855-56.
Robotic Containerization System: USPS term for automatic handling of sorting and loading of trays of mail to containers or pallets for transportation.
ROC: Republic of China (Taiwan).
Roche's City Dispatch: U. S. local post, Wilmington, Del., 1850.
Rochester: U.S. local post; see Hoyt's Letter Express
Rochester Parcel Delivery Co.: local delivery firm that serviced Rochester, N.Y., Parcel Stamp.
Rocket flight: rocket pioneers placed souvenir cards or covers in their rockets; referred to as "Rocket mail," astrophilatelists commemorate rocket flights by non-flown covers posted at the launch site or nearest postal facility to the launch date.
Rocket mail: mail sent via rockets; first experiments took place in 1928 in Austria by Friedrich Schmiedl; many covers also have special labels affixed for the occasion.
Rocket mail, first official: Stephen Smith flew a rocket with mail and a parcel enclosed on April 7, 1935 in Sikkim, India.
Rocket mail stamp, first official: issued by the government of Cuba on Oct. 15, 1939 for the first experimental rocket flight in Havana.
Rocket post: Raketenpost (Ger.) , Poste par Fusée (Fr.) , Posta per Razzo (It.) , Correo de Cohete (Sp.)
Rocket stamp: a private stamp or label to prepay charges to have a letter or card sent by rocket mail.
Rocking-in: when the image of the transfer roller is moved to the printing plate during the line-engraving process.
Rřd: (Dan., Nor.) red (color)
Röd: (Swed.) red (color).
Roda: 1: city in Egypt; see Interpostal Seals, 1871-82 2: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican 1937
Roda de Ter: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican,1937
Rödakors: (Swed.) Red Cross
Rödakt: (Swed.) reddish (color).
Rödakt-blĺakt lila: (Swed.) reddish - bluish-lilac (color).
Rödakt brun: (Swed.) reddish-brown (color).
Rödakt karmin: (Swed.) reddish-carmine (color).
Rödakt orange: (Swed.) reddish-orange (color).
Rödakt-orange - orange: (Swed.) reddish-orange - orange (color).
Rödakt-violett: (Swed.) reddish-violet (color).
Rodas: (Sp.) Rhodes.
Rødbrun: (Dan.) red-brown (color).
Røde Halvmåne: (Dan., Nor.) Red Crescent.
Røde Kors: (Dan., Nor.) Red Cross.
R.O. Del Uruguay: Uruguay.
Rodézia: (Hung.) Rhodesia.
Rodézia (Dél): (Hung.) Southern Rhodesia.
Rodgers Aerial Post: cross-country flight carried mail with privately printed stamps, 1911.
Röd Halvmĺn: (Swed.) Red Crescent.
Rřd Halvmĺne: (Nor.) Red Crescent.
Rodhos: aka Rhodes.
Rodi: see Rhodes. Overprint/inscription on stamps of Italy, Aegean Islands see Rhodes, Isle of Roles d'Equipage: ships personnel roster; French Colonies revenue inscription.
Rodillo: (Sp.) roller
Rodillo de Propaganda: (Sp.) roller used for slogan postmarks
Rřd Kors: (Nor.) Red Cross.
Rødlig: (Dan.) reddish.
Rødligblå: (Dan.) reddish-blue (color).
Rødligbrun: (Dan.) reddish-brown (color).
Rødliggul: (Dan.) reddish-yellow (color).
Rødliglilla: (Dan.) reddish-violet (color).
Rødligorange: (Dan.) reddish-orange (color).
Rødligpurpur: (Dan.) reddish-purple (color).
Rødligviolet: (Dan.) reddish-violet (color).
Rødorange: (Dan.) red-orange (color).
Rodosto: French post office opened Feb. 1872, closed Aug. 1876.
Rödvin: (Swed.) wine red, claret (color).
Rřdbrun: (Dan. Nor.) red-brown, maroon (color).
Rödbrun: (Swed.) red-brown, maroon (color), seeRusset.
Rřdfiolett: (Nor.) red-violet (color).
Rřdlig: (Dan., Nor.) reddish.
Rřdligblĺ: (Dan., Nor.) reddish-blue (color).
Rřdligbrun: (Dan., Nor.) reddish-brown (color).
Rřdligfiolett: (Nor.) reddish-violet (color).
Rřdliggul: (Dan., Nor.) reddish-yellow (color).
Rřdliglilla: (Dan., Nor.) reddish-violet (color).
Rřdligoranjse: (Nor.) reddish-orange (color).
Rřdligpurpur: (Dan., Nor.) reddish-purple (color).
Rödlila: (Swed.) red-lilac, muave (color).
Rödlila-rödakt lila: (Swed.) red-lilac - reddish-lilac (color).
Rřdlilla: (Nor.) red-lilac, muave (color).
Röd-ljusröd: (Swed.) red-light red (color).
Röd-mattröd: (Swed.) red-dull red (color).
Rödorange: (Swed.) red-orangr (color).
Rödviolett: (Swed.) red-violet (color).
Roeber, H. & W.: see Private die match proprietary stamps.
Roeber, William: see Private die match proprietary stamps.
Roessler, A. C. (A.C.Roe): East Orange, N.J. cover dealer who designed, printed and sold many types of airmail stationery, cachets and etiquettes; prosecuted by the U.S. Post Office Department for unauthorized overprinting of U.S. stamps; also produced essays and bogus issues of several other nations..
Rofté Mbreti 1467-1914: Albania handstamp for arrival of Prince William zu Wied on March 14, 1914
Roger's Penny Post: U. S. local post and handstamp, Newark, N.J., 1856.
Rohania: Romania.
Rohovy Blok: (Czech.) corner block (of stamps).
Rohrpost: (Ger.) pneumatic post used in Germany, 1867; Austria 1873.
Roi: (Fr.) king
Roido: (Sp.) "diente roido"; perforation pulled.
Roil Mail: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
Rojo: (Sp.) red (color).
Rojo Ladrillo: (Sp.) brick red color.
Rojo vinoso: (Sp.) claret (color)
ROK: international postal code for South Korea.
Rol: (Dut.) coil (stamp)
Roland Press P.S.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
Roles d'Equipage: ship's personnel roster; French Colonies revenue inscription. Roleta: (Sp.) roulette
Roll: a coil of stamps
Rolle: (Ger.) coil (of stamps)
Roller-canceller: a canceling device used for periodicals and standard mail.
Rollins Express: local firm that serviced Boston, Groveland and West Newbury, Mass., labels.
Rollo de sellos: (Sp.) coil, roll of stamps
Roll of Distinguished Philatelists: founded by the Philatelic Congress of Great Britain in 1920, first signer was King George V
Rollstempel: (Ger.) roller hand cancel
Rom.: (It.) Romagna (Italy pre-adhesive postmark).
Romagna(e): made up of Italian provinces of Forli, Ravenna, Ferrara and Bologna; currency: 100 bajocchi = 1 scudo 1852, Jan. 1: stamps from Papal States, 1859, June 12: No.1, ½ bajocci black strawberry, issued own stamps as a provisional government, 1859, Oct. 12- March 1, 1860: bisects used, 1860, March 25: became part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, 1862: Italian general issue stamps replaced local issues, 1870: became part of the province of Emilia; unified Kingdom of Italy; see Roman States.
Romagne: inscription on stamps of Romagna
Romana, Romina, Roumania: Romania.
Romana Posta: bogus label, anti-communist issue
Romana, Zona de Occupatie: overprint on stamps of Hungary, Romanian Occupation.
Romania: see Arad.
Romania: southeastern Europe, on Black Sea, aka Rumania, Roumania; currency: 40 parale = 1 piaster, 100 bani = 1 leu (1868) 1858, July: No.1, 27 parale black on rose, stamps were those of Moldavia, 1862, June 26: stamps of Moldavia and Walachia who combined as Romania, 1865-pre: stamps handstamped on paper, 1865, Jan.: No.1, 2 parale orange, first stamps issued as Romania, 1875, July 1: joined the U.P.U. 1881: kingdom under Carol I, first postage due stamp, 1895: first parcel post stamp, 1896, March 16: stamps of Romania overprinted in Turkish currency issued for Romanian ships, mail and stamp seized by Turkish police on May 25, PO closed, 1906, Jan. 14: first semipostal issued, 1915: first postal ta, postal tax due stamps, 1916: overprinted stamps of Bulgaria for occupation of Dobruja, 1917: occupation stamps of Austria and Germany surcharged, 1918, Dec.1: stamps of Hungary overprinted in Romanian currency used in Transylvania and Romania, 1919: stamps of Romania overprinted in Turkish currency issued for Romanian post offices in Turkish Empire, 1919, July: Banat Bacska issued stamps, then divided between Romania and Yugoslavia, 1919: Temesvar used overprinted stamps of Serbia; 1919, Aug. 20 Temesvar used overprinted stamps of Romania; then awarded to Romania and renamed Timisoara., 1919: Romanian occupation of Pokutia, stamps of Austria surcharged “C.M.T.” 1919, Nov. 20: Debrecen used stamps of Romania, then retained by Hungary and Romanian stamps withdrawn, 1919: Romania established a post office on board ship in Constantinople, Turkey, 1928: first air mail stamp, 1929: first official stamp, 1940, Dec.1: first air mail semipostal stamp issued, 1944, April: occupied by Russia, 1947, Dec.30: became People’s Republic of Romania.
Romania - 1909 Romanian Aviation Week at Bucharest: the first Romanian aviation event was held in Bucharest during 24-31 October 1909; the French pioneer aviator and English Channel pilot, Louis Blériot (1872-1936), participated. A special postcard depicting Blériot and his monoplane and e inscribed "BLÉRIOT SI MONOPLANUL SAU" was issued for the occasion. The card exists with postage stamps cancelled by an undated postmark, but the dated cancel on the reverse evidences the card being posted on 7 November 1909, a week later than the aviation week events.
Romania - 1919 French Military Flight to Greece and Turkey: on 6 September 1916, a French military plane at Bucharest on a good-will visit departed for Salonika (now Thessaloníki), Greece, and Smyrna (now Izmir), Turkey. Souvenir mail is recorded being carried on the flight.
Romania - 1921 Bucharest-Paris Flight: on 31 October 1921, the French-owned C.F.R.N.A. (Cie. Franco-Roumaine de Navigation Aérienne) airline inaugurated the first Bucharest to Paris flight via Prague, Czechoslovakia, and Strasbourg, France. First flight covers exist for the Bucharest-Prague and Bucharest-Paris legs of the flight.
Romania - 1922 Bucharest-Budapest Flight: on 21 September 1922, the French-owned C.F.R.N.A. (q.v.) airline inaugurated the first Bucharest to Budapest, Hungary, flight; first flight covers commemorating the event exist.
Romania - 1922 Bucharest-Constantinople Flight: on 30 September 1922, the French-owned C.F.R.N.A. (q.v.) airline inaugurated the first Bucharest to Constantinople, Turkey, flight; first flight covers commemorating the event exist.
Romania - 1923 Bucharest-Belgrade Flight: on 1 June 1923, the French-owned C.F.R.N.A. (q.v.) airline inaugurated the first Bucharest to Belgrade, Yugoslavia; flight; first flight covers commemorating the event exist.
Romania - 1925 Bucharest International Flights: during 1925, the French-owned C.I.D.N.A. (Cie. Internationale de Navigation Aérienne) conducted a series of inaugural Flights to international destinations: 17 January, Bucharest to Paris via Prague, Czechoslovakia; 17 March, Bucharest to Constantinople, Turkey; 28 July, Bucharest to Vienna, Austria, and Budapest, Hungary; 28 September, survey flights for the Bucharest to Galati, Romania, and return routes; and 30 September, Bucharest to Warsaw, Poland, via Prague. First flight covers exist for the individual flights.
Romania: Austrian occupation; 1916, June: Romania invaded Hungarian Transylvania, was defeated, 1917: Austro-Hungarian Army occupied Romania; issued stamps.
Romania - Bistra Local Post: local post established in 1906, and issuing 2 and 6 Heller Stamps printed by Josef Hientz in Sebes-Alba and inscribed "S.R.V. / SECTION-MÜHLBACH / (fir tree) / Bistra-Post", the "S.R.V." representing "Siebenbürgiescher Karpatenverein" (Ger., Eng. Siebenburgen, Hung. Erdély, Rom. Transilvania ("Siebenburgen Carpathian Mountains Club"); the post ceased operations in 1914. Mühlbach (Rom. Sebes, Alba county) was the German name for the Romanian town ca. 5 miles south of the county capital Alba Iulia, and ca. 140 miles NW of Bucharest.
Romania: Bulgarian occupation; 1916-17: Bulgaria invaded; stamps of Bulgaria overprinted including date “1916-1917."
Romania - D.B.S.R. Local Railroad Post: the local railroad post formed the link between the Danube Steam Navigation Company (q.v.) mail boats calling at the commercial port of Czernawoda (Rom. Cernavoda, or Cerna-Voda), located in SE Romania on the Danube River WNW of the city of Constanta and ca. 105 miles E of Bucharest, and the Austrian Llyod services at Kustandje (Ger. Küstenja, Rom. Constanta), the Black Sea port ca. 25 miles E of Czernawoda. Local stamps issued in 1867 for the territory then belonging to Turk ey are inscribed "D.B.S.R. / Local-Post / KUSTENDIE & CZERNAWODA / 20 PARAS" ("D.B.S.R.": "Danube Black Sea Railway"), and are found used on letters from either Kustandje or Czernowoda, paying the loose letter railroad rate; these covers are found as mixed franking with the stamps of Lombardy-Venetia.
Romania: German occupation; 1917: Romania occupied by Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Germany; German occupation powers issued stamps of Germany overprinted “M.V.i.R.” Militär Verwaltung in Rumänien Military Administration of Romania, 1918: stamps of Germany overprinted “Gultig / 9. Armee,” a postal tax to maintain occupation army.
Romanian Occupation of Hungary: 1919: first semi-postal, postage due stamps on stamps of Hungary, occupation of Banat Bacska, Debreczin, Temesvar and Transylvania.
Romanian Occupation of Western Ukraine: stamps of Austria surcharged “C.M.T.” during occupation of Pokutia, 1919.
Romanian Offices in Turkish Empire: 1896: No.1, 10 paras on 5 banis blue, general issues surcharged for use in Turkish Empire, but Turkey refused to let them be used, 1896, Mar. 1: agency opened on a Roumanian Steamship Co. ship, 1896, May 25: ship post office closed by Turkish police, 1919: overprint applied for use in Constantinople office.
Romania Post Offices in Constantinople: 1896: general issues surcharged for use in Turkish Empire, but Turkey refused to let them be used, 1896, Mar. 1: agency opened on a Roumanian Steamship Co. ship, 1896, May 25: ship post office closed by Turkish police, 1919: overprint applied for use in Constantinople office.
Romana Posta: bogus label, anti-communist issue, year unknown.
Romania-Zone de Occupatie: overprint on stamps of Hungary for Romanian occupation.
Roman States: also known as Papal States, located in central part of Italy with Rome as its capital, existed since 5th century; currency: 100 bajocchi = 1 scudo, 100 centesimi = 1 lira (1867) 1859: Romagna broke away to become part of Sardinia 1852, Jan. 1: No.1, ½ bajochi black violet, Roman States issued first stamp, 1870: Roman States incorporated into Kingdom of Italy, stamps of Italy used, now Vatican City.
Rombos: (Sp.) lozenge
ROMC: (It.) Regio Uffizio Corrier Maggiore (Royal Office of the General Postmaster), pre-adhesive postmark.
Romersk: (Nor.) Roman (adj.).
Romina: Romania, preceded by "R.P." used on stamps of Romania 1954-64.
Romney Hythe & Dymchurch Light Railway: stamp for conveyance of single post letter by railway; Great Britain.
Ronda: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Nationalist, 1936-37
Rood: (Dut.) red (color).
Roode Kruis: (Dut.) Red Cross inscription on Netherlands semi-postal.
Roo's: Australian stamps featuring the kangaroo, 1913-48.
Roosevelt Nickel Invert: cinderella used in movie The Truth About Charlie a remake of Charade.
Roosevelt proofs: during the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt,1903, the Post Office made 85 albums of sets of die proofs of all U. S. postage stamps designs as gifts to various political figures.
Roothill Emergency P.S.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
ROPiT: (Russ.) Russian Company of Trade and Navigation; Russian Post Offices in Turkey; 1862, Nov.: first stamps, 1863, Jan. 1: first stamps issued, 1868, May: ROPiT agencies given status of Russian Post offices Abroad, 1909: overprinted stamps issued for Beirut, Dardanelles, Galata, Jaffa,Jerusalem, Kerassunde, Mount Athos, Mytilene, Rizeh, Salonica, Smyrna, and Trebizond, 1914, Sept. 30: Russian post offices on Turkish soil closed, 1919: some post offices reopened briefly; failed for lack of ships.
Roquetes: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican 1937
Rørpost: (Dan.) pneumatic post, pneumatic mail.
Rørpostmærke: (Dan.) pneumatic post stamp, pneumatic mail stamp.
Rosa: (Dan., Ger., It., Nor., Sp., Swed.) pink, rose (color)
Rosaakt: (Swed.) rose-tinged (color).
Rosabrun: (Swed.) rose-brown (color).
Rosace: the embossed or impressed device found on the loose flap of an envelope with a pattern of interlaced circles, the lines are sunk and the interweaving portions are in relief; in imitation of the old-fashioned wafer used in sealing.
Rosafarvet: (Dan.) rose (color).
Rosarød: (Dan.) rose-red (color).
Rosaröd: (Swed.) rose-red (color).
Rosbach perforation: named after F. P. Rosbach perforating machine that applied gauge 12 1/2 to the U.S. 1919 issue.
Rose Engine: device used to engrave complicated geometric designs by Perkins, Bacon & Co.
Rose, J.B. & Co.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp.
Roseau: Fresh Water Lake, Layou River, Boiling Lake inscriptions, unissued Great Britain cinderellas by David Horry, 2001.
Rosenrřd: (Nor.) rose-red (color).
Roses: 1: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican 1937 2: U.S. Navy code name during WW II for Efate, New Hebrides Islands.
Roses de Llobregat: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War, Republican1937
Rosette: city in Egypt; see Interpostal Seals, 1871-82
Rosette crack: fine cracks radiating from a central point in irregular lines.
Roskilde Flight: see Denmark - Copenhagen-Roskilde Flight, 1914.
Rossbach: perforating machine, used on a limited number of the 1918 issue, gauge 12 1/2, rejected by the USPOD in 1919.
Ross Dependency: area of Antarctica under New Zealand administration; 1923, July 30: claimed by Great Britain on behalf of New Zealand, 1908: stamps of New Zealand overprinted “King Edward VII Land,” 1910-12: stamps of New Zealand overprinted “Victoria Land,”1957, Jan. 11: No.1, 3 pence dark blue, stamp first issued; see New Zealand.
Rossija: Russia, a former republic of the Soviet Union, 1991-.
Rosso: (It.) red (color).
Rosso di Mattone: (It.) brick red (color)
Rosswein: 1: Rosswein, German courier local post, 1893 2: local post, German Democratic Republic, 1946
Rossyeny: town in Lithuania, local provisional, 1919
Rost: (Swed.) rust.
Rostbraun: (Ger.) rust (color)
Rostbrun: (Swed.) rust-brown (color).
Rostfläcker: (Swed.) rust blemish, blot, spot, stain.
Rostfleckig: (Ger.) foxed, rust spots, tropical stain
Rostnummernstempel: (Ger.) grill and numeral cancel
Rostock: city in Germany local post, Courier, 1896-1900
Rostorange: (Swed.) rust-orange (color).
Rostov: city in Russia, aka Rostof; 1871-91: local post, Russian Zemstvo, 1918-19: stamps were surcharges on Russian stamps.
Rosu: (Rom.) red (color).
Rosu-aprins: (Rom.) bright red, fire-red (color).
Rosu-caramiziu: (Rom.) brick-red (color).
Rosu-carmin: (Rom.) carmine-red (color).
Rosu-carne: (Rom.) flesh (color).
Rosu-lila: (Rom.) lilac-red (color), see Visiniu-putred.
Rosu-purpuriu: (Rom.) purplish rose, geranium (color).
Rosu-sînge: (Rom.) blood-red (color).
Rosu-violet: (Rom.) violet-red, lilac-red (color).
Rot: (Ger.) red (color)
Rotacni Ocelotisk: (Czech.) line engraving - rotary print.
Rotacni Ocelotisk Kombinovany s Rastrovym Hlubotiskem: (Czech.) line engraving - rotary printing in combination with photo engraving.
Rotary cancel: cancellation die mounted on a revolving drum, soemtimes with a self-inking device, to obliterate stamps.
Rotary coil end strip: a leader and end strip was added to the roll with information re the face value and number of stamps.
Rotary International-Convention Wien 1932: overprint on stamps of Austria semi-postal, 1932
Rotary perforations: a perforation applied by a perforating wheel that has a grinding motion; usually results in rougher perforations and may be slightly distorted in shape.
Rotary Perforator: has wheels of perforating pins that rotate on a central axle or shaft.
Rotary plates: flat plates are bent to fit the round cylinders of the rotary printing presses.
Rotary press: uses joined, curved printing plates that print on continuous rolls (webs) of paper
Rotary press stamps: stamps printed from curved plates as compared to stamps printed from flat plates on a flat bed press. They will be slightly longer or wider than flat press stamps.
Rotary printing: 1: printing process where pressure is applied by an impression cylinder to the paper against the printing cylinder. 2: impresion rotativa (Sp.) , impression par cylindre (Fr.) , stampa rotativa (It.) , walzendruck (Ger.)
Rotary rouletting: rouletting applied by wheels rolled over the paper vs to blades that descend and pierce the paper.
Rotat. aetztiefdruck: (Ger.) rotogravure.
Rotation number: the number applied to a sheet for use on checking the sheets stamp paper.
Rotationsdruck: (Ger.) rotary printing
Rotationsptressar: (Swed.) rotary presses.
Rotes Kreuz: (Ger.) Red Cross.
Roto: (Sp.) broken.
Rotocalco: (It.) photogravure, intaglio.
Rotogravure: rotary photogravure, where an engraved plate is made by photographic means and printed on a rotary press; also known as photogravure
Rotolo: (It.) coil (of stamps).
Rotto: (It.) broken.
Rött pĺtryck: (Swed.) red surcharge.
Rotura: (Sp.) crack, tear, break, split
Rouad: warship cancel, 1915.
Rouad, Ile: off the coast of Syria, 1916, Jan. 12: French post office issued stamps of the French Offices in the Levant overprinted "Ile Rouad."
Rouble: currency unit in Belarus, Russia
Rouen Aviation Club: France, local, 1922.
Rouge: (Fr.) red.
Rough perforation: Perkins, Bacon and Co. perforating machine where the holes are cut out clean with bits of paper adhering, leaves jagged perforated holes
Rouleau de timbres: (Fr.) coil (stamp)
Roulette: 1: perforation consisting of short knife dash-like cuts; many forms exist 2: durchstich (Ger.), perçage (Fr.), feratura (It.), corte de lineas (Sp.)
Roulette de timbres: (Fr.) coil stamps gathered in a series of rings or spirals.
Rouletted in color: notched rules are put between the cliches forming the plate from which the stamps are printed, and these rules being inked with the plate, the edges of which are colored.
Rouletting: the cutting of paper between stamps in order to make the separation of the stamps easier; in perforations, paper is actually removed from the sheet in the punched holes, but rouletting creates the appearance of a series of dashes.
Roumania: see Romania
Roumanie: (Fr.) Romania.
Roumelie Orientale: overprint on stamps of Turkey for Eastern Rumelia, 1880-84.
Round gum: the shape of the ends of the gum on flaps of U.S. envelopes; in 1876, the shape was changed from square to round.
Round trip cover: cover flown both ways on a round trip without readdressing.
Routage: (Fr.) sorting operations.
Route: a course laid out for a USPS employee or contractor carrier in the performance of deliver duties; can also apply to Railroad Route, etc..
Route agents: authorized to receive and deliver mail on his route, term used about 1839.
Route designations, routing: UPU regulation in the late 1880s stating that mail to be expedited by most rapid means available, any surcharge would be collected upon receipt.
Routing code symbols: USPS term for labels on a piece of mail when delivered, labels marked "C" all items in bundle for same city; "D" all items in bundle for same five-digit ZIP code area; "F" for all items in bundle for same address; "S" all items destined for same state; "3" all items in bundle for the same area based bon first three digits of Zip code.
Rovescio: (It.) reverse, back
Rovno: city in the Ukraine, local overprint, 1993.
Row: a horizontal strip of stamps; vertical strip is called column, or vertical row.
Royal Air Force: common design of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1993, 1998.
Royal and Imperial Society for Navigation by Steamship: formed in1 839 to carry mail on the Danube and its tributaries.
Royal Birth 21 June 1982: 1982 Aitutaki overprint.
Royal Blue: bleu roi (Fr.) ; konigsblau (Ger.) ; assurro reale (It.) ; azul real (Sp.) .
Royal cipher labels: originally printed in England in 1701, in same size shape and color of the Penny Black; used as tax stamps affixed by glue to official documents; prior to their use, duty stamps were embossed directly on important documents, but these disappeared with time.
Royal Co. Island: bogus issue using frame of St. Vincent stamp.
Royal Court Post Office: a post office that travels with the United Kingdom’s royalty; contains special cancels,date stamps, etc.
Royal Family Birthday, Anniversary: common design of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1991.
Royal Great Britain Hanoverian Post Office: 1814; independent of any British involvement, King of England was also King of Hanover.
Royal Hudson: local courier label, British Columbia, Canada, 1976
Royalist Bulgarian Government in Exile: Bulgarian freedom movement
Royal Mail Steam Packet Co.: Caribbean shipping company 10¢ stamp, used on steamers between West Indies and England, 1875-80.
Royal Navy: envelope with this heading, Great Britain, known as a "Privilege, Honour, Blue or Green" envelope, permits service people to sign that correspondence in the envelope refers to nothing but family matters.
Royal Niger Company: firm used British stamps, cancelled at their offices at Akassa, Abutshi, Burutu and Lokoja, 1886-December 21, 1899.
Royal Philatelic Society: founded in 1869, King George V was president in 1896; formerly the Philatelic Society.
Royalty stamps: stamps that indicates that a royalty fee has been paid, may or may not be denominated.
Royal Train R.P.O.: postmark used for visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth of England on June 9, 1939.
Royal Visit: 1: 1992 Aitutaki overprint. 2: common design of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1953, 1966.
Royal Wedding: common design of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1981, 1986.
Royaume: (Fr.) kingdom.
Royaume de Burundi: July 1, 1962: overprint on stamps of Ruanda-Urundi; see Burundi.
Royaume de Cambodge: Kingdom of Cambodia.
Royaume d'Egypte: Kingdom of Egypt.
Royaume de l'Arabie Soudite: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Royaume de Maroc: Morocco.
Royaume des Cieux: Belgian fantasy.
Royaume de Yemen: Yemen.
Royaume du Burundi: Burundi.
Royaume du Cambodge: Cambodia.
Royaume du Laos: Laos.
Royaume Uni: (Fr.) United Kingdom (U.K.).
Roz: (Rom.) rose, pink (color).
Roz-anilina: (Rom.) aniline-rose (color).
Roz-carmin: (Rom.) carmine-rose (color).
Rozoj, Insulo de la: bogus issue
Roz-portocaliu: (Rom.) orange-rose (color).
Rózsa: (Hung.) rose (color).
Rózsaszin: (Hung.) pink (color).
Rózsabarna: (Hung.) rose-brown (color).
Rózsaszsinu: (Hung.) rose-colored.
Roz-somon: (Rom.) salmon (color).
Roz-violet: (Rom.) violet-rose (color).
RP: 1: currency unit in Liechtenstein, Switzerland 2: rocket posts. 3. Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Private Die Canned Fruit. 4. international postal code for the Philippines.
Rp: Rupiah, currency unit in Indonesia.
RPA: (Sp.) República Popular Angola, cancel used by Cuban troops in Angola, Jan. 1985
R.P.E. Shiqperise: (Alb.) Albania.
RPF: "Reichpfennig" overprint on stamps of Luxembourg, German Occupation, 1940.
RPK: handstamp on Cambodian stamps for Republic of Kampuchea.
RPO: see Railway Post Office.
R.P.Romina: Republica Populara Romina; Popular Republic of Romania; overprint on stamps of Romania.
RPS: see R.P.S.L..
RPSC: Royal Philatelic Society of Canada.
RPSL: Royal Philatelic Society, London
RQ: Scott Catalog number prefix for Unemployment Insurance (Ryukyu).
R.R. 1: Germany overprint for Rhine Republic. 2: auction abbreviation for railroad, topical.
R.R. Poste Coloniali Italiane: (It.) Royal Italian colonial posts
R.R. Poste Italiane / Comune de Campione: see Campione d'Italia
RRT: right (side)
RS: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Private Die Medicine.
RSA: 1: Republic of South Africa. 2: international postal code for South Africa. 3. rubber stamp used to address the envelope.
RSC: rubber stamp cachet.
RSFSR: Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic
R.S.I.: (It.) Repubblica di San Marino (Italian Social Republic) created in 1943.
R.S.M.: Repubblica di San Marino (Republic of San Marino), 1949-51
RSO: 1: Regional Security Officer, U.S. marking on covers to indicate envelope was examined and was determined not to have anthrax 2: Railway Sorting or Sub-Office
RT: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Private Die Perfumery.
R.T.R.P.: (Pol.) Provisional Government, Polish Republic
R.T.S.: Return to Sender
RTV: U.S. Revenue Trailer Permit. Scott catalog number prefix to identify stamps other than standard postage.
RU: 1. Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Private Die Playing Card. 2. international postal code for Russia.
RUA: overprint on stamps of Syria, United Arab Republic, 1958.
Ruanda: overprint on stamps of Congo for German East Africa.
Ruanda-Urundi: central Africa, part of German East Africa, aka Belgian East Africa; currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc 1916-pre: ruled by German East Africa, 1916: Belgian occupation stamps, French, Flemish and German overprints on stamps of Belgian Congo, 1918: first semipostal stamp, 1924, Dec.1: mandated to Belgium by League of Nations; No.1, 5 centimes orange yellow, stamps of Belgian overprinted “Ruanda / Urundi”; first postage due stamp, 1925: semipostal stamps of Belgian Congo overprinted “Ruanda-Urundi,” 1931: first stamps inscribed “Ruanda-Urundi,” 1946, Dec. 13: United Nations Trust Territory, 1962, July 1: country divided; new stamps for Urundi as the Republic of Burundi and Ruanda as the Republic of Rwanda; see German East Africa.
Rub: surface damage due to abrasion, erasure of a cancel, or other unwanted mark
Rubber stamp address: address applied to a cover using a rubber stamp.
Rubber stamp cachet: cachet applied to a cover with a rubber stamp.
Rubezahls Reich: German equivalent of Rip Van Winkle's Kingdom
Rubi: city in Spain; Spanish civil war local, Republican, 1937
Rubinrřd: (Nor.) ruby-red (color).
Ruble: currency unit in many Russian language countries.
Rublis: currency unit in Latvia until 1923
Ruby: (British) Type size in printing.
Ruch: specialized Poland catalog.
Rückdatiert: (Ger.) backdated
Rückscheinmarke: (Ger.) stamp issued as a prepayment fee as an acknowledgment of receipt of a registered package.
Rückseite: (Ger.) back (as opposed to the front of a philatelic object).
Rückseitig: (Ger.) back, as opposed to the front of a philatelic object.
Rücksteitiger-Stemple: (Ger.) backstamp; postmark applied to back of incoming mail to show date and time of receipt at the receiving post office.
R.U.D.P.: (It.) Regio Ufficio della Posta (Royal Post Offiice-Lombardy) pre-adhesive postmark.
Rudy: (Czech.) crimson , dark red (color).
Rue: overprint on stamps of Ecuador as a control mark.
Rueda de Carreta: (Sp.) cart-wheel, refers to 1858-73 postmark shaped like a wheel.
Ruffich - Polen: see Russisch-Polen. Rufiyaa: currency unit in Maldives.
Ruhleben: British prisoner camp stamps from Germany, 1915.
Ruhnu: bogus, Russian area, not valid for postage.
Ruhrgebiet: (Ger.) Ruhr area in Germany
Ruled feint: paper with pale blue lines as a writing guide; used for printing the 1887 stamps of Mexico and the 1919 Latvian emergency stamps.
Ruled lines: blue ink lines on the face of an envelope to guide the person writing the address; introduced in 1870 and discontinued in 1872.
Ruleteado: (Sp.) rouletted.
Rulle(r): (Swed.) coil stamp(s).
Rullemćrke(r): (Dan.) coil stamp(s).
Rumænien: (Dan.) Romania
Rumænsk: (Dan.) Romanian.
Rumæniensk Post i Tyrkiet: (Dan.) Romanian Post Offices in the Turkish Empire (Levant).
Rumćnsk Post i Tyrkiet: (Dan.) Romanian Post Offices in the Turkish Empire (Levant).
Rumania: see Romania.
Rumanien: 1. overprint on stamps of Germany, German occupation of Romania, 1917. 2. (Nor.) Romania (Roumania).
Rumänien: (Swed.) Romania (Roumania).
Rumansk: (Nor.) Romania (Roumania)
Rumänsk: (Swed.) Romanian (Roumanian).
Rumberg: Sudentenland local post, aka Rumbark, 1938
Rumelka: (Czech.) vermilion (color).
Rumford Chemical Works: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp.
Rumunsko: (Czech.) Romania.
Rumunsky: (Czech.) Romanian.
Run: faded color usually due to fugitive ink becoming damp
Runderoth: city in Germany, local post 1945
Rundsendezirkel: (Ger.) circuits issued by (stamp) clubs and organizations
Runeberg: (Fin.) local post for use on steamships carrying mail, late 1800s.
Running Chicken: Waterbury, MA, cancel depicting three running chickens.
Running Up the Bidder: the practice to artificially create higher realizations for an auction lot by "accepting" bids from non-existent bidders; also known as "Bidding Against the Ceiling," "Bidding Against the Curtains," and "Ghost Bidder."
Rupee: currency unit in many countries; Aden (to 1951); Afghanistan, Bahrain, British East Africa, British Indian Ocean territory, Burma, Ceylon, German East Africa, Indian Native States, Iraq (to 1908), Kuwait, Maldive Islands, Mauritius, Mesopotamia, Muscat, Nepal, Pakistan, Portuguese Timor, Seychelles, Somaliland Protectorate (to 1951); Tibet (to 1933); Zanzibar (to 1908).
Rupee Afghani: currency unit in Afghanistan
Rupee Kabuli: currency unit in Afghanistan.
Rupia: currency unit in Portuguese India.
Rupiah: currency unit in Indonesia.
Rupie: (Rupee) currency unit in German East Africa
Rups: Donald Evans issue, America; see Evans, Donald
Rural carrier: a USPS employee assigned to deliver and collect all mail classes.
Rural Couriers Society: private post operator in New Zealand who uses own postage stamps.
Rural Free Delivery (RFD): begun Oct. 1,1896, brought daily mail delivery to residents living outside urban areas.
RUS: precedes the country code for Russia, such as Moscow, RUS-195426.
Rusa, rusesc: (Rom.) Russia, Russian (adj.).
Rush this Message to My Boy: label for mail addressed to US Forces in France, 1917-18.
Rusia: (Sp.) Russia.
Rusko: (Czech.) Russia.
Rusky: (Czech.) Russian.
Rusland: (Dan., Ger.) Russia.
Russell & Co.'s Express:1866, mail and parcel serviced Boston, Bradford and Haverhill, Mass., labels
Russell & Majors: William H. Russell and Alexander Majors, operated express service at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas territory in1855; joined by William B. Waddell forming Russell, Major & Waddells.
Russell, E. T.: see Private die match proprietary stamps.
Russell, Morgan & Co.: U.S. private die playing card stamp.
Russell, Sayward & Co.'s Express: parcel firm serviced Boston, Bradford and Haverhill, Mass., labels
Russell's 8th Ave. Post Office: U. S. local post, New York, N.Y., 1854-58.
Russell, William H.: operated the Central Overland California and Pike's Peak courier service from Missouri River to San Francisco, April 3, 1860.
Russet: (Swed.) red-brown (color), seeRödbrun.
Russia: eastern Europe and northern Asia; name prior to 1917 Russian revolution; aka Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.); currency: 100 kopecks = 1 ruble 17th century: Yamskoi Prikaz, postcoachmen’s office, recruited postmen for the mail-coaches, 19th century: had more than 458 post offices with 5,000 officials, 1809-Dec. 1917: Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire, 1857: No.1, 10 kopecks brown & blue, first stamp, 1862-1901:Wenden, town in Russian province of Livonia, then called Vidzeme in Latvia, issued own stamps, 1857, Dec. 10: first stamps for Russian Empire, known as the Arms type 1865: local governments issued Zemstov issues, ended in 1917, 1870: Russian post offices opened in Kalgan, Peking, Tientsin, and Urga, 1874, July 1: joined the U.P.U., 1897: post offices opened in Chefoo and Shanghai, 1899: special overprinted issues used in foreign offices, 1905: first semipostal stamp, 1917-23: Russian Revolution, formed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Ukraine, issued their own stamps, 1918:, Jan. stamps issued by new central government, Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, 1918: stamps of Russia surcharged under German occupation of Tartu, Estonia,1918: South Russia; Cossack government set up in Don Republic, 1918-20: Civil Wars between anti-Bolsheviks and the new government, 1918, Nov.: Siberia; Admiral Kolchak took over area, issued surcharges on stamps of Russia, resigned on Jan. 4, 1920, 1919, March 4: Central Lithuania issued own stamps when occupied by Bolshevik troops, retaken by Polish Army April 20, 1919, 1919: stamps of Finland overprinted “Aunus,” Finnish name for Olonets, town in Russia, 1919, Oct.: South Russia; stamps overprinted by Cossack Government in Kuban, 1919, Jan.: South Russia; provisional government, issued its own stamps, 1919, April: South Russia; General Denikin, issued own stamps, 1919, Aug.1-Nov. 1919: Army of the Northwest, led by Gen. Yudenich, overprinted stamps of Russia, 1919, Sept.-Dec. 1919: Army of the North, led by General Rodzianko; stamps issued, 1919, Oct.: Western Army; overprint on stamps of Latvia; 1919, Nov.: Western Army; overprint on stamps of Russia, 1920, Jan. 20-Oct. 21: Siberia; Trans-Baikal province established White Russian regime, surcharge on four stamps of Russia, 1920, Feb.: Amur Province; People’s Revolutionary Committee issued stamps 1920, ended with start of the Far Eastern Republic in Sept. 1920, 1920, April 4: South Russia; General Denikin resigned his command to General Wrangel, 1920, Sept.: Far Eastern Republic; overprint on stamps of Russia, annexed to Soviet Russia Nov. 1922; 1920, Oct. 20: Central Lithuania stamps issued after Polish Army seized area, 1920: South Russia; Cossack stamps from Kuban and Don stopped, 1921, July: Priamur and Maritime Provinces; stamps for Japanese-backed White Russian provisional government that operated May 21 1921, Oct. 25, 1922; 1922: first air mail stamp, 1923, Jan.: Eastern Siberia; due to currency differences, special surcharged stamps used, 1923, Aug. 19: first stamp issued as Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1924: first postage due stamp, 1939, Sept. 17: Russia invaded Poland, eastern Poland used Russian postal system, 1940, Aug.: Central Lithuania put into Soviet Union, issued Russian stamps, 1941, June: Germany invaded Russia, 1941, Nov. 4: stamps of Germany overprinted “Ostland” (Eastern Lands) and “Ukraine,” 1945: Russia used own stamps and issued stamps for the Russian-occupied provinces of East Germany, 1991, Dec. 12; last stamp issued as Soviet Union, 1991, Dec. 26: Soviet Union broke up, formed the Commonwealth of Independent States 1991: new stamps mostly overprints / surcharges of previously issued stamps, 1992-93: postal administration of St. Petersburg issued own surcharged / overprinted stamps, as did many other local regional authorities; see Amur, Central Lithuania, Siberia, Eastern, Far Eastern Republic, North West Russia, Priamur and Maritime Provinces, Siberia, South Russia, Trans-Baikal Province, Wenden, and Zemstvos.
Russia, Army of the North: aka North West Russia; 1919, Aug.1: stamps of Russia inscribed “OKCA” Special Corps, Army of the North, for use in the Baltic area, 1919, Sept.:No.1, 5 kopecks brown-violet, Northern Army captured Pskov, Gdov and Yaurburg, issued own stamps, 1919, Oct.: stamps of Latvia overprinted for Riga, 1919, Nov.: “OKCA” stamps of Russia withdrawn, see A.B, Amur.
Russia, Army of the Northwest: 1919, Aug.1: No.1, 2 kopecks green.
Russia, Finnish Occupation: 1919: stamps of Finland overprinted “Aunus,” Finnish name for Olonets, a Russian town. 1941: stamps of Finland overprinted “ITA - Karjala SOF. Hallinto” for Russian territory of Eastern Karelia under Finnish military government.
Russia, German Occupation: see Russian Occupation of Germany.
Russian Dominion of Poland: 1860: Polish postage used on letters within Polish territory to Russia, 1865: used stamps of Russia, 1918: Polish Expeditionary Force used Russian stamps with a surcharge.
Russian Dominion of Poland: 1860: Polish postage used on letters within Polish territory to Russia, 1865: used stamps of Russia, 1918: Polish Expeditionary Force used Russian stamps with a surcharge.
Russian Embassy Post office: German surcharge on Russian consular fee stamps, 1922.
Russian Empire, Finland: Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire; 1856: No.1, 5 kopecks blue, 1917, Dec.: Finland declared its independence; see Finland.
Russian Occupation of Crete: 1899: district of Rethymnon issued provisional stamps.
Russian Occupation of Germany: 1945: stamps inscribed “Stadt Berlin” city of Berlin for Berlin-Brandenburg, 1945: stamps and semipostals inscribed “Mecklenburg Vorpommern” for Mecklenburg, 1945: stamps inscribed “Provinz Sachsen” for the province of Saxony, 1945: semipostal issued for West Saxony (Leipzig), 1945: stamps inscribed “Thuringen” for Thuringia issued, 1945, June 23: stamps issued for East Saxony, withdrawn on day of issue, Russian inscription for postage removed, 1946, Jan. 19: semipostals issued for Saxony, 1946, Feb. 6: East Saxony semipostal stamps issued, 1946, Mar. 30: semipostal for Thuringia issued, 1948, June: mark revalued; provisional overprint with city and town names and post office / zones numerals, 1948, July 3: stamps of Germany overprinted “Sowjetische Besatzungs Zone.”
Russian Occupation of Korea: currency: 100 chon = 1 won (1962) stamps of Japan used, 1946, Mar. 12: - 1955: No.1, 20 chon red, stamps issued for North Korea, land north of the 38th parallel, 1948, Sep. 9: Democratic People’s Republic of North Korea established; see Korea Democratic Peoples Republic.
Russian Occupation of Latvia: 1919: handstamp on stamps of Latvia issued at Mitau by West Russian Army commanded by Col. Bermondt-Avalov, 1940: used stamps of Soviet Latvia inscribed “Latvijas PSR.”
Russian Occupation of Lithuania: 1940: stamps of Lithuania overprinted “LTSR 1940 VII 21" Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic July 21, 1940.
Russian Offices in China: currency: 100 kopecks = 1 ruble, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1917) 1899-1920: stamps of Russia overprinted / surcharged for China (Cathay).
Russian Offices in Turkish Empire: currency: 100 kopecks = 1 ruble, 40 paras = 1 piaster (1900) 1862, Nov.: used stamps of Russia, 1863, Jan. 1: No.1, 6 kopeck blue, first stamp issued, 1900: stamps of Russia overprinted / surcharged for Levant (Turkish Empire), 1923, Oct. 27: foreign post offices closed.
Russian Post Offices in Turkey: 1913: first commemorative stamp.
Russian Post Offices Abroad: 1863-1913: stamps of Russia overprinted / surcharged for Levant (Turkish Empire), 1899-1920: stamps of Russia overprinted / surcharged for China (Cathay)
Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic: name prior to Aug. 19, 1923; see Russia.
Russian Turkestan: 1917-18: stamps of Russia surcharged 25 kopecks and 1 ruble are fraudulent.
Russian Zone: plus American and British occupying powers 1946-48: one issue, overprinted with pattern of posthorns, for occupation of Germany 1948-49: "Deutsche Post" inscription used.
Russian Zone of Germany: currency: 100 kopecks = 1 ruble, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1917) WW II-post: Russian zone of occupation included stamps for eastern Berlin (Brandenberg), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony, and Thuringia.
Russia Refugee’s Post: 1921: stamps of Russia, South Russia, Russian Levant and the Ukraine were overprinted and surcharged for use in refugee camps in Turkey, etc. after the evacuation of the Crimea by General Wrangel’s South Russian Volunteer Army.
Russia, South:
1918-19: stamps included Don Territory Government used surcharged Russian stamps; Kuban Territory Government used surcharged Russian stamps, and Postal Savings Stamps; Crimea Regional Government issued two Russian surcharged stamps, one for currency; South Russian Government of General Denikin issued inscribed stamps “United Russia;” Government of South Russia, General Wrangel, issued surcharged Russian stamps.
Russisch Polen: overprint on stamps of Germany, German occupation of Poland, 1915.
Russie: (Sp.) Russia.
Russifch - Polen: (Ger.) Russian Poland; overprint on stamps of Germany issued during German occupation, May 12, 1915.
Russisk: (Dan., Nor.) Russian.
Russiske zone: (Dan.) Russian Zone.
Russiske skeppspost: (Swed.) Russian ship mail (ship post).
Russiske skibspost: (Dan.) Russian ship mail (ship post).
Russiske skipspost: (Nor.) Russian ship mail (ship post).
Russiske Sone: (Nor.) Russian Zone.
Russiske Zone: (Dan.) Russian Zone.
Russisk østasiasisk republik: (Dan.) (Russian) Far Eastern Republic.
Russisk Post i Kina: (Dan.) Russian Post Offices in China.
Russisk Post i Tyrkiet: (Dan.) Russian Post Offices in the Turkish Empire ( Levant).
Russisk Post i Udlandet: (Dan.) Russian Post Offices Abroad.
Russland: (Dan., Ger., Nor.) Russia
Russusch-Polen: (Ger.) overprint on stamps of Germany for use in occupied Russian Poland, 1915
Rust: brown mold that disfigures stamps in humid climates
Rustbrun: (Dan., Nor.) rust-brown (color).
Rustenberg: town in the Transvaaal; 1900, June 23: stamps overprinted V.R. during South-African war.
Rustorange: (Dan.) rust-orange (color).
Rustoranjse: (Nor.) rust-orange (color).
Rustrød: (Dan., Nor.) rust-red (color).
Rutebil: (Dan.) long distance bus.
Rutherfordton, N.C. Paid 5cts: see Confederate Postmasters' Provisionals.
Rutland Postal Service: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
Ruzovy: (Czech.) pink, rose-colored (color).
RV: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Motor Vehicle Use.
RVB: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Boating.
RVC: Scott Catalog number prefix for Camp.
RVT: Scott Catalog number prefix for Trailer Permit.
RW: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Hunting Permit.
Rwanda: central Africa, formerly part of Ruanda-Urundi, aka Rwandaise Republic; currency:100 centimes = 1 franc 1914-pre: part of German East Africa, 1924: United Nations mandated territory, passed to Belgium with Urundi as Republic of Burundi, 1962, July 1: No.1, 10 centimes brown and gray green, first stamp as Republic of Rwanda, 1963, April 6: joined the U.P.U., 1967, Sep. 18: first air mail stamp. 1973, Aug. 23: first semipostal stamp, see Ruanda-Urundi.
Rwanda: bogus butterflies issue of 1999, reported to the UPU, Feb. 7, 2000.
Rwandaise: Rwanda.
R.W.H.E.: Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson; manufacturers of the U.S. 1847 stamps.
RX: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Distilled Spirits.
RY: auction abbreviation for topical rotary and lions
RY: Scott Catalog number prefix for U.S. Revenue Firearms Transfer.
Ryazan: city in Russia, local post, Russian Zemstvo 1867-80
Ryazhsk: city in Russia, local post, Russian Zemstvo 1882-98
Ryssland: (Swed.) Russia.
Rysk: (Swed.) Russian.
Rytec: (Czech.) engraver.
Ryukyu Islands: group of 63 islands in the Pacific Ocean; between Japan and Taiwan; currency: 100 sen = 1 yen, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1958) 1879: under control of Japan, 1945, Aug.: occupied by the U.S., military post office, provisional overprints of four island districts on stamps of Japan, 1945, Oct. 1: Kume Island; mimeographed on U.S. military paper, 1946: Miyako District, handstamp with chops on stamps of Japan, 1947: Amami District; handstamp with chops on stamps of Japan, 1947, Nov. 1: Okinawa District; with personal seal of Postmaster Hirata, 1948: Yaeyama District; personal seal of Postmaster Mitara, 1949, July: No.18, 5 sen magenta, first regular issue, 1950, Feb. 15: first air mail stamp, first special delivery stamps, 1952: first revenue stamps, 1953: Amami group returned to Japan, 1972, May 15: rest of islands restored to Japan, uses stamps of Japan.
RZ: Scott Catalog number prefix for Rectification.
Rzhef: city in Russia, local post, Russian Zemstvo 1867-96